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NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem Leadership Collaboration Communication Change Management and Policy Considerations

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    NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem Leadership Collaboration Communication Change Management and Policy Considerations

    Student Name

    Capella University

    NURS FPX 4900 Capstone Project for Nursing

    Prof. Name


    Assessing the Problem: Leadership, Collaboration, Communication, Change Management, and Policy Considerations

    This evaluation centers on the situation of John, a 50-year-old male patient contending with Type 2 diabetes management challenges. This evaluation aims to scrutinize information from expert sources and scholarly articles to direct nursing interventions and recommend efficient leadership approaches for bettering patient results, personalized care, and patient experiences. Moreover, this evaluation investigates the influence of nursing practice norms and regulations on John’s diabetes control, underlining the essential contribution of nurses in policy formulation to avert sickness, enhance outcomes, and minimize hospital readmissions. Finally, this evaluation records the hands-on experience gained with John and similar cases, guaranteeing a comprehensive grasp of the issue and the requisite leadership, cooperation, and change administration tactics needed to elevate patient outcomes.

    Problem Definition and Relevance

    This evaluation examines a patient care issue within our healthcare institution, highlighting the significance of leadership, cooperation, and change administration in tackling these challenges. Our patient, John, is a 50-year-old Hispanic male who has been experiencing inadequately managed Type 2 diabetes and obesity. His family background includes diabetes, as both his father and uncle were diagnosed with the disease.

    Despite attempting numerous medications and lifestyle modifications, John’s blood sugar levels persistently remain elevated, with HbA1c levels surpassing 9%. John has visited our healthcare facility multiple times over the past year, seeking help with managing his diabetes. His most recent visit was two weeks ago, when he reported increased fatigue and blurry vision, both of which are common symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes. As a baccalaureate-prepared nurse, I am responsible for ensuring that patients like John receive appropriate and timely care to prevent further complications and improve their quality of life.

    NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem

    The problem of uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes is significant not only for the patient’s health and well-being but also for the healthcare organization’s performance and reputation. Poorly managed diabetes can lead to severe complications, such as kidney damage, nerve damage, and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, resulting in frequent hospital visits and higher healthcare costs (Saeed et al., 2021). Furthermore, it can negatively impact patient satisfaction, as they may feel frustrated with their inability to manage their condition effectively.

    The issue of uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes is a significant public health problem, with statistics indicating its increasing prevalence in society. As a baccalaureate-prepared nurse, addressing this issue is highly relevant to my practice. My role involves providing comprehensive patient care, promoting health equity, and working towards improving population health outcomes. By focusing on patients like John, who struggle with poorly controlled diabetes, I can contribute to reducing health disparities, enhancing access to care, and empowering individuals to take charge of their health. My dedication to delivering top-notch, individualized care aligns with generating a favorable influence on the health and welfare of the communities.

    Evidence Analysis

    Numerous research studies from scholarly literature provide evidence that endorses nursing interventions connected to managing Type 2 diabetes in patients similar to John. For example, a systematic analysis underscores the efficacy of diabetes self-management education and assistance in enhancing blood sugar control and mitigating complications in Type 2 diabetes patients (Powers et al., 2020). Furthermore, a study accentuates the significance of a multidisciplinary team approach involving nurses in attaining improved diabetes outcomes (Catapan et al., 2021).

    The conclusions of these investigations align with nursing practices that emphasize patient education, self-management, and cooperation among healthcare experts. As nurses, we will provide comprehensive diabetes self-management education to John and other similar patients to improve their glycemic control and reduce the risk of complications. Additionally, we will collaborate with other healthcare professionals to develop and implement a multidisciplinary care plan that addresses John’s diabetes and related comorbidities. The conclusions of these investigations align with nursing practices that emphasize patient education, self-management, and cooperation among healthcare experts.

    NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem

    It is crucial to consider elements like the research design, the number of participants, and possible biases to assess the dependability of the information conveyed in these investigations. Additionally, examining the consistency of the findings across multiple studies and the overall quality of the research can help assess the evidence’s reliability. In the case of the systematic review, the authors synthesized findings from numerous high-quality studies, lending credibility to their conclusions. Furthermore, the large sample size and rigorous data analysis methods suggest the data are reliable (Johnson et al., 2020).

    Research has shown that adherence to nursing standards and policies can improve patient outcomes for Type 2 diabetes. A study by Sly et al. (2021) found that following evidence-based guidelines for diabetes care led to improved glycemic control and reduced hospital readmissions. Similarly, implementing clinical practice guidelines in diabetes care is associated with improved patient outcomes, including better glycemic control and lower rates of complications (American Diabetes Association, 2020).

    Nurses hold a vital position in formulating policies to enhance results, avert sickness, and decrease hospital re-admissions for individuals with Type 2 diabetes. According to a study, nursing involvement in policy development and advocacy can lead to more effective healthcare policies and better patient outcomes (Turale & Kunaviktikul, 2019). Additionally, a review by Kraaij et al., (2019) highlighted the importance of nursing leadership in shaping healthcare policies and improving diabetes care at the population level.

    NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem

    The literature suggests that the Chronic Care Model (CCM) can serve as a guiding framework for nursing actions during the practicum. The CCM focuses on improving the quality of chronic illness care by integrating proactive healthcare teams, self-management support, and care coordination (Keddy et al., 2020). This model can help guide nursing interventions for patients like John, enabling them to manage their Type 2 diabetes better and improve their overall health. Additionally, the Self-Determination Theory offers valuable insights into how nurses can support patients’ motivation and autonomy in managing their diabetes, further enhancing the effectiveness of the nursing care provided (Bodil Steen Rasmussen et al., 2023).

    The literature identifies several barriers to implementing evidence-based practice in addressing Type 2 diabetes management. For example, studies found common barriers include lack of time, insufficient resources, inadequate knowledge of evidence-based practices, and resistance to change among healthcare professionals. Moreover, organizational culture, limited access to relevant research, and poor communication among healthcare team members can also hinder the adoption of evidence-based practices (Shayan et al., 2019).

    Impact of Nursing Practice Standards and Policies on Patient Outcomes

    The nursing practice standards set by state boards, along with organizational or governmental policies, significantly influence patient outcomes in Type 2 diabetes management. Abiding by evidence-based guidelines for diabetes care has proven to result in improved blood sugar control and decreased hospital readmissions (Sly et al., 2021). For instance, in John’s situation, adhering to evidence-based care guidelines for diabetes can lead to enhanced management of his blood sugar levels and a reduced risk of complications.

    Studies have underscored the importance of the nursing role in policy making to enhance outcomes, prevent illness, and reduce hospital readmissions for Type 2 diabetes patients. Nurses’ engagement in policy creation and advocacy can lead to more efficient healthcare policies and improved patient outcomes (Turale & Kunaviktikul, 2019). In John’s case, nursing involvement in policy development and advocacy can result in policies that boost access to diabetes care, education, and support, ultimately leading to better management of his diabetes and overall well-being.

    Local, state, and federal policies and legislation can considerably impact the nursing scope of practice within Type 2 diabetes management. For example, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) broadened access to preventive care services, such as diabetes screenings and counseling, thereby expanding the role of nurses in providing these services (Luquis & Kensinger, 2018). Additionally, some states have adopted policies granting nurse practitioners full practice authority, enabling them to offer comprehensive diabetes care without physician oversight (O’Reilly-Jacob et al., 2021). In John’s situation, policies that increase access to diabetes care, education, and support can enhance his health outcomes, while policies that restrict or limit nursing scope of practice can obstruct the delivery of quality care and negatively affect patient outcomes.

    Leadership Strategies and Practicum Hours Documentation

    Nurses are essential professionals in our organization who continuously strive to enhance healthcare outcomes through the development and implementation of leadership skills. Leadership and collaboration skills have been widely recognized as vital components for nurses in improving patient care. In the context of John’s diabetes management scenario, nursing leaders can play a pivotal role in raising awareness about health determinants and devising effective strategies to improve the health of communities and patients.

    It is important for nurses to consider various sociocultural, historical, and financial factors related to effective  management of Type 2 diabetes in patients like John. For instance, research shows that factors such as low health literacy, language barriers, and cultural beliefs can impact diabetes self-management and glycemic control (Bonet Olivencia et al., 2021). In addition, financial constraints and limited access to healthcare services can also impede patients’ ability to manage their diabetes effectively. As nursing leaders, it is essential to employ transformational and servant leadership styles to address healthcare disparities related to diabetes care. Evidence-based strategies can also be helpful in refining nursing roles, leadership styles, and skills to manage diabetes effectively and prevent complications (Funnell et al., 2022).

    Considering that John has multiple cardiovascular risks and is struggling with diabetes management, nursing leaders can help translate these strategies into real-world scenarios and take actionable steps to improve healthcare outcomes. The professional duty of our nurses is to prioritize diabetes care by discussing it during practicum hours as well as in annual meetings.

    NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem

    During the practicum, I spent practicum hours with John to assess the effectiveness of various leadership strategies, communication and collaboration strategies, and change management strategies. These hours will be documented in the Core Elms Volunteer Experience Form, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the problem and the necessary leadership, collaboration, and change management strategies needed to improve patient outcomes.

    Research has shown that transformational and servant leadership styles have a positive impact on healthcare outcomes, including improving patient satisfaction and reducing nurse turnover rates (Ferreira et al., 2022). Furthermore, effective collaboration and communication among healthcare professionals and patients can enhance patient-centered care and reduce medical (Lin et al., 2020). In addressing John’s diabetes problem, nursing leaders must play a crucial role in providing guidance, support, and motivation to the interdisciplinary team, which includes physicians, pharmacists, dietitians, and other healthcare professionals. Nursing leaders must also ensure that staff members are equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to manage diabetes effectively and prevent complications.

    NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem

    The implementation of effective change management strategies is crucial in addressing the issue of diabetes, and nursing leaders have a significant role in promoting and executing them. A vital strategy is to foster a culture of continuous improvement, which involves healthcare professionals identifying areas for improvement, assessing their performance, and adapting to changes as required. Encouraging the adoption of evidence-based practices is another critical change management strategy that nursing leaders should promote (Kitson et al., 2021). This includes keeping up-to-date with the latest research on diabetes management, applying evidence-based guidelines, and constantly refining diabetes care protocols.

    Furthermore, nursing leaders must provide continuous education and training for their staff to enhance their knowledge and skills in diabetes management. This includes organizing training sessions on diabetes management, sharing best practices among healthcare professionals, and providing resources for patients and families. These educational programs can assist healthcare professionals in improving their competencies and knowledge in diabetes management, leading to better patient outcomes (Świątoniowska et al., 2019).

    Moreover, effective communication and collaboration are vital components of addressing the diabetes problem. Nursing leaders should create communication channels among healthcare professionals to ensure that all team members are aware of the latest evidence-based guidelines and treatment protocols. This includes regular meetings among healthcare professionals, implementing electronic health records, and promoting open communication among team members (Kitson et al., 2021). With effective communication and collaboration, healthcare professionals can work together to develop patient-centered care plans that promote better health outcomes for patients, such as John.


     In conclusion, the assessment of John’s Type 2 diabetes management emphasizes the importance of leadership, collaboration, communication, change management, and policy considerations to enhance patient outcomes and experiences. Nursing leaders have a crucial role in promoting evidence-based practices, fostering a culture of continuous improvement, providing education and training, and establishing effective communication channels among healthcare professionals. Complying with nursing practice standards and policies, and engaging in policy development and advocacy can also improve patient outcomes and prevent hospital readmissions.

    Through the practicum, nursing professionals can enhance their leadership skills, refine their nursing roles, and improve their knowledge and abilities in diabetes management. Focusing on patients like John can help nurses reduce health disparities, improve access to care, and empower individuals to manage their health effectively.


    American Diabetes Association. (2020). 6. Glycemic targets: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2021. Diabetes Care, 44(Supplement 1), S73–S84. 

    Bodil Steen Rasmussen, Wynter, K., Hamblin, P. S., Rodda, C., Steele, C., Holton, S., Vibeke Zoffmann, & Currey, J. (2023). Feasibility and acceptability of an online guided self-determination program to improve diabetes self-management in young adults. Digital Health, 9, 205520762311670-205520762311670. 

    Bonet Olivencia, S., Rao, A. H., Smith, A., & Sasangohar, F. (2021). Eliciting requirements for a diabetes self-management application for underserved populations: a multi-stakeholder analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(1), 127. 

    Catapan, S. de C., Nair, U., Gray, L., Calvo, M., Bird, D., Janda, M., Fatehi, F., Menon, A., & Russell, A. (2021). Same goals, different challenges: A systematic review of perspectives of people with diabetes and healthcare professionals on Type 2 diabetes care. Diabetic Medicine, 38(9). 

    Ferreira, T. D. M., Mesquita, G. R., Melo, G. C., Oliveira, M. S., Bucci, A. F., Porcari, T. A., Teles, M. G., Altafini, J., Dias, F. C. P., & Gasparino, R. C. (2022). The influence of nursing leadership styles on the outcomes of patients, professionals, and institutions: An integrative review. Journal of Nursing Management, 30(4). 

    Funnell, M. M., Kloss, K. K., & Nwankwo, R. B. (2022). Caring for people with diabetes. Nursing, 52(11), 26–32.

    NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem Leadership Collaboration Communication Change Management and Policy Considerations

    Johnson, J. L., Adkins, D., & Chauvin, S. (2020). A review of the quality indicators of rigor in qualitative research. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 84(1), 138–146.  

    Keddy, A. C., Packer, T. L., Audulv, Å., Sutherland, L., Sampalli, T., Edwards, L., & Kephart, G. (2020). The Team Assessment of Self-Management Support (TASMS): A new approach to uncovering how teams support people with chronic conditions. Healthcare Management Forum, 084047042094226. 

    Kitson, A. L., Harvey, G., Gifford, W., Hunter, S. C., Kelly, J., Cummings, G. G., Ehrenberg, A., Kislov, R., Pettersson, L., Wallin, L., & Wilson, P. (2021). How nursing leaders promote evidence‐based practice implementation at point‐of‐care: A four‐country exploratory study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77(5). 

    Kraaij, J., Oostveen, C., Vermeulen, H., Heinen, M., Huis, A., Adriaansen, M., & Peters, J. (2019). Nurse practitioners’ perceptions of their ability to enact leadership in hospital care. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(3-4), 447–458. 

    Lin, H.-J., Ko, Y.-L., Liu, C.-F., Chen, C.-J., & Lin, J.-J. (2020). Developing and evaluating a one-stop patient-centered interprofessional collaboration platform in taiwan. Healthcare, 8(3), 241. 

    Luquis, R. R., & Kensinger, W. S. (2018). Applying the health belief model to assess prevention services among young adults. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 57(1), 37–47. 

    NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem Leadership Collaboration Communication Change Management and Policy Considerations

    O’Reilly-Jacob, M., Perloff, J., Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, R., & Flanagan, J. (2021). Nurse practitioners’ perception of temporary full practice authority during a COVID-19 surge: A qualitative study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 126, 104141. 

    Powers, M. A., Bardsley, J. K., Cypress, M., Funnell, M. M., Harms, D., Hess-Fischl, A., Hooks, B., Isaacs, D., Mandel, E. D., Maryniuk, M. D., Norton, A., Rinker, J., Siminerio, L. M., & Uelmen, S. (2020). Diabetes self-management education and support in adults with type 2 diabetes: a consensus report of the american diabetes association, the association of diabetes care and education specialists, the academy of nutrition and dietetics, the american academy of family physicians, the american academy of pas, the american association of nurse practitioners, and the american pharmacists Association. Diabetes Care, 43(7), dci200023. 

    Saeed, S., Tadic, M., Larsen, T. H., Grassi, G., & Mancia, G. (2021). Coronavirus disease 2019 and cardiovascular complications. Journal of Hypertension, Publish Ahead of Print. 

    Shayan, S. J., Kiwanuka, F., & Nakaye, Z. (2019). Barriers associated with evidence‐based practice among nurses in low‐ and middle‐income countries: a systematic review. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 16(1), 12–20. 

    Sly, B., Russell, A. W., & Sullivan, C. (2021). Digital Interventions to improve safety and quality of inpatient diabetes management: a systematic review. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 104596. 

    NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem Leadership Collaboration Communication Change Management and Policy Considerations

    Świątoniowska, N., Sarzyńska, K., Szymańska-Chabowska, A., & Jankowska-Polańska, B. (2019). The role of education in type 2 diabetes treatment. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 151(151), 237–246. 

    Turale, S., & Kunaviktikul, W. (2019). The contribution of nurses to health policy and advocacy requires leaders to provide training and mentorship. International Nursing Review, 66(3), 302–304.