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NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3 Pico(t) Questions And An Evidence Based Approach

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    NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3 Pico(t) Questions And An Evidence Based Approach

    Student Name

    Capella University

    NURS FPX4030 Making Evidence-Based Decisions

    Prof. Name


    PICO (T) Questions and an Evidence-Based Approach

    In the realm of healthcare research, the PICO (T) methodology functions as a framework for formulating and addressing clinical inquiries. PICO (T) encompasses Patient/Population/Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Time if applicable. It delineates a systematic approach to defining the key components of a potential study or investigation. The “P” designates the patient or population under consideration, while the “I” denotes the intervention being evaluated. The “C” involves the comparison of interventions or controls, and the “O” points to the desired outcomes. Finally, “T,” if pertinent, relates to the time frame over which the intervention’s effects are scrutinized. This framework serves as a strategy for constructing research questions and guiding the search for clinical evidence, thereby fostering evidence-based healthcare practices.

    Practice Issue of Type II Diabetes Management

    The investigation centers on the management of Type 2 diabetes—a complex condition significantly impacting a substantial global population, thereby exerting notable strain on both quality of life and healthcare systems (Westman, 2021). To effectively address this issue, the application of a PICO (T) approach proves advantageous. This systematic framework streamlines the research process by focusing on pivotal facets of the concern.

    NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3 Pico(t) Questions And An Evidence Based Approach

    A PICO (T)-formatted research question could be: “In adults with Type 2 diabetes (P), does a lifestyle intervention program focusing on dietary changes and physical activity (I), compared to standard care (C), lead to notable improvements in hemoglobin A1C levels (O) over a 12-month period (T)?”. The PICO (T) approach clarifies and focuses the research question, aiding in the development of a more targeted research strategy and facilitating the location of relevant evidence efficiently. This refined focus enhances the likelihood of producing high-quality research leading to improved patient outcomes and more effective healthcare policies and procedures.

    Identification of Sources of Evidence

    Various sources can provide valuable insights for addressing the PICO (T) question concerning the impact of lifestyle interventions on hemoglobin A1C levels in individuals diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Esteemed publications such as Diabetes Care, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and the Journal of the American Medical Association regularly release current, peer-reviewed studies on interventions for Type 2 diabetes. Authoritative governmental websites like the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and Clinical Trials offer valuable data on ongoing and successful studies related to lifestyle management in diabetes.

    Additionally, databases such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, and CINAHL provide an abundance of pertinent studies. To assess the credibility and suitability of sources, the CRAAP test, evaluating Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose, proves invaluable. This ensures that the sources utilized are current, pertinent, authoritative, accurate, and aligned with the intended purpose (Lowe et al., 2021). Combining the CRAAP test with the PICO question presents a beneficial strategy for healthcare professionals. It ensures credible and meaningful information leads to improved patient outcomes and enhanced quality of care.

    Findings from the Relevant Sources

    Research into the management of Type 2 diabetes has predominantly focused on lifestyle interventions as a pivotal approach. An authoritative source, the American Diabetes Association (2020), provides valuable insights into programs centered around lifestyle changes targeting Type 2 diabetes. The article underscores the significance of structured interventions promoting modest weight loss, yielding notable enhancements in blood glucose levels among adults with Type 2 diabetes. 

    Another pertinent contribution comes from Zou et al. (2020), who provide evidence supporting the enduring advantages of lifestyle interventions for adults with Type 2 diabetes. The research utilizes predictive models derived from data acquired from the Da Qing Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and Diabetes Study, suggesting a potential impact on reducing hemoglobin A1C levels. In related work, Yang et al. (2023) offer a comprehensive assessment of various randomized controlled trials focusing on lifestyle interventions, indicating a notable decrease in HbA1C levels among overweight and obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes across various ethnic groups.

    Decision-Making on the PICO(t) Question Using the Findings

    The findings from the selected sources are highly relevant when making decisions related to the PICO(T) question. The information provided by the American Diabetes Association (2020) serves as a comprehensive guideline, outlining the significance and functionality of lifestyle interventions in treating Type 2 diabetes. This validates the choice of intervention in the PICO(T) question. Investigations like Zou et al. (2021) and Yang et al. (2023) underscore the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on long-term diabetes management and lowering HbA1C levels. The congruence among sources regarding the benefit of lifestyle interventions indicates the potential for positive outcomes. Especially supported by the critical review of randomized controlled trials, it can be inferred that lifestyle modifications are impactful in managing Type 2 diabetes outcomes, underscoring the utility of the PICO(T) question focusing on dietary changes and physical activity.


    In conclusion, the PICO (T) framework is a vital strategy for formulating research questions and directing an evidence-based approach to healthcare issues. This method enables the precise definition of patient problems, intervention, comparison, and outcomes, facilitating efficient literature search and application of relevant information. Utilizing evidence-based practice, such as PICO (T), helps translate research findings into meaningful clinical practices, leading to improved patient outcomes and healthcare efficiency. It underscores the importance of selecting credible sources, interpreting findings, and applying these to clinical decision-making.


    American Diabetes Association. (2020). Standards of medical care in diabetes-2020 abridged for primary care providers. Clinical Diabetes, 38(1), 10–38.

    Lowe, M. S., Macy, K. V., Murphy, E., & Kani, J. (2021). Questioning CRAAP. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 21(3).

    Westman, E. C. (2021). Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pathophysiologic perspective. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8.

    NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3 Pico(t) Questions And An Evidence Based Approach

    Yang, J., Xia, Y., Sun, Y., Guo, Y., Shi, Z., do Vale Moreira, N. C., Zuo, H., & Hussain, A. (2023). Effect of lifestyle intervention on HbA1c levels in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes across ethnicities: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 110662.

    Zou, X., Zhou, X., Zhu, Z., Ji, L., Zhang, H., Lascar, N.,Chiasson, J. L. (2020). Development of models to predict 10-30-year cardiovascular disease risk using the Da Qing Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes Study. Journal of Diabetes, 13(1), 52-66.