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NURS FPX 5003 Assessment 4 Executive Summary:Community Health Assessment

Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 5003 Health Assessment and Promotion for Disease Prevention in Population-Focused Health Prof. Name Date Executive Summary: Community Health Assessment A comprehensive community health assessment involves extensive data collection and analysis to identify critical health issues and needs. This process equips organizations with a deep understanding of the community’s requirements and current health status, enabling the development of effective strategies for improving overall health. This report focuses on the outcomes of past initiatives and delves into the demographics related to diabetes in West Virginia. It incorporates insights from healthcare professionals, highlights crucial elements of the intervention plan, and proposes approaches to promote cross-cultural collaboration. Demographics Addressing Diabetes in West Virginia In West Virginia, approximately 250,000 individuals have diabetes, with an additional 65,300 residents undiagnosed. In 2010, diabetes prevalence was 12% for males and 11.5% for females. West Virginia’s diverse population includes White, Asian, Hispanic, African American, and other racial and ethnic groups. Education, a significant social determinant of health, reveals disparities in diabetes cases, emphasizing the importance of evidence-based lifestyle change programs (Health Statistics Centre, n.d.; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Summary of West Virginia’s Diabetes-Related Demographics West Virginia shows varying diabetes prevalence rates across racial and ethnic groups, with approximately 16% of the adult population affected. Diabetes-related medical expenses in 2017 amounted to $2 billion in direct costs, with an additional $640 million in indirect costs (American Diabetes Association, 2018). Demographics encompass various community characteristics, including age, education, income, employment, gender, and commuting patterns, crucial for understanding disease expression and consequences (America’s Health Ranking, n.d.). Analysis of Findings from Healthcare Interview Insights into healthcare issues, prevention strategies, and culturally competent care are obtained through dialogues with healthcare professionals. Culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS) are valuable tools to ensure equitable healthcare access. Implementing National CLAS Standards requires overcoming obstacles, such as the need for additional resources and guidance on interpretation (Think Cultural Health, n.d.). Key Components of Intervention and Health Promotion Plan Effective communication of accurate information to the healthcare community, stakeholders, and the public is vital for successful public health programs. Key elements of intervention plans include clear objectives, well-defined strategies, and regular progress monitoring. Effective healthcare worker training is central to providing diabetes care within the community (Fernandez et al., 2019). Strategies to Foster Cross-Cultural Collaboration Cross-cultural competency is crucial for effective communication and care delivery to individuals from diverse backgrounds. Strategies to foster collaboration include spreading awareness, holding regular staff meetings, and acknowledgment campaigns highlighting community diversity (Ladha et al., 2018). Strategies Used by Stakeholders to Advocate for Intervention Identifying and prioritizing key stakeholders, including community leaders, insurance companies, and investors, is essential for advocating health promotion plans. Engaging stakeholders involves clarifying strategic priorities, organizing educational meetings, and encouraging feedback (Byrne, 2019). Professional Communication of Assessment Given the diverse audience, professional communication that reflects respect, empathy, and comprehension is imperative. Effective communication methods include genuine engagement, summary reports, and a patient-centered approach (Arnold & Boggs, 2019). Conclusion In conclusion, an effective intervention strategy can significantly impact community health programs. Adhering to CLAS standards can promote healthcare equality, while epidemiological tools aid in understanding the community’s unique needs. Success in healthcare interventions ultimately depends on clear, professional communication and the implementation of effective strategies. References American Diabetes Association. (2018). The burden of diabetes in West Virginia. https://diabetes.org/sites/default/files/2021-11/ADV_2021_State_Fact_sheets_West%20Virginia_rev.pdf America’s Health Ranking. (n.d.). America’s Health Rankings | AHR. America’s health rankings. Retrieved January 18, 2023, from https://www.americashealthrankings.org/explore/annual/measure/Diabetes/population/Diabetes_White_C/state/WV Arnold, E. C., & Boggs, K. U. (2019 E-book: Professional communication skills for nurses. In Google Books. Elsevier Health Sciences. https://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=XC2GDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Professional+Communication&ots=NqYj2_XPQQ&sig=XQQRv-VxjalcG1s_tkca- NURS FPX 5003 Assessment 4 Executive Summary:Community Health Assessment Byrne, M. (2019). Increasing the impact of behavior change intervention research: Is there a role for stakeholder engagement? Health Psychology, 38(4), 290–296. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000723 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). National Diabetes Prevention Program. Centers for disease control and prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/prevention/index.html Clarke, G. M., Conti, S., Wolters, A. T., & Steventon, A. (2019). Evaluating the impact of healthcare interventions using routine data. BMJ, 365(365), l2239. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l2239 Fernandez, M. E., Ruiter, R. A. C., Markham, C. M., & Kok, G. (2019). Intervention mapping: theory- and evidence-based health promotion program planning: perspective and examples. Frontiers in Public Health, 7(209). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00209 Health Statistics Centre. (n.d.). HSC Statistical Brief No. 28 Diabetes and Health Equity in West Virginia: A Review. http://www.wvdhhr.org/bph/hsc/pubs/briefs/028/brief28_20121220_health_eq_stat.pdf Think Cultural Health, (n.d.). Culturally and linguistically appropriate services. https://thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/clas#:~:text=The%20National%20CLAS%20Standards%20are Kumela Goro, K., Desalegn Wolide, A., Kerga Dibaba, F., Gashe Fufa, F., Wakjira Garedow, A., Edilu Tufa, B., & Mulisa Bobasa, E. (2019, May 12). Patient awareness, prevalence, and risk factors of chronic kidney disease among diabetes mellitus and hypertensive patients at Jimma University Medical Center, Ethiopia. BioMed Research International. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2019/2383508/ NURS FPX 5003 Assessment 4 Executive Summary:Community Health Assessment Ladha, T., Zubairi, M., Hunter, A., Audcent, T., & Johnstone, J. (2018). Cross-cultural communication: Tools for working with families and children. Paediatrics & Child Health, 23(1), 66–69. https://doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxx126 Vanaken, H., & Masand, S. N. (2019). Awareness and collaboration across stakeholder groups important for eConsent achieving value-driven adoption. Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science, 53(6), 724–735. https://doi.org/10.1177/2168479019861924

NURS FPX 5003 Assessment 3 Intervention And Health Promotion Plan For Diverse Population

Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 5003 Health Assessment and Promotion for Disease Prevention in Population-Focused Health Prof. Name Date Intervention and Health Promotion Plan for Diverse Populations The foundational premise of this study is grounded in the belief that health promotion strategies proven effective in the general population can similarly thrive when tailored for ethnic minority groups. Thus, the initial phase involves sourcing evidence-based recommendations for successful health promotion in the broader population. Essential to the process is the involvement of key stakeholders, patients, and community members, guided by evidence, to foster the creation of effective health interventions. In West Virginia, home to various ethnic minority groups, including Black or African Americans facing disparities in diabetes-related mortality, participation in health promotion interventions becomes imperative for addressing health disparities based on race and ethnicity. Major Components of an Intervention and Health Promotion Plan Innovation is essential for refining the technical aspects of program implementation and the overall development of public health strategies. Embracing innovation enhances program management, sustaining impactful diabetes interventions. The inclusion of diverse population representatives in the team fosters the generation of novel concepts and creative ideas, potentially enriching the intervention process (O’Cathain et al., 2019). Utilizing a combination of interventions, such as patient self-management and staff awareness sessions, contributes to improved patient care outcomes for individuals with diabetes. Enhanced team effectiveness in preventing the disease within a diverse population context is poised to yield positive results (O’Cathain et al., 2019). While clinicians focus on diagnosing and treating diseases, individuals are primarily concerned about maintaining their overall quality of life. Acknowledging the influence of patients’ cultural backgrounds on healthcare perspectives is paramount. Equally vital is imparting respect for patients and fostering inter-professional respect to mitigate healthcare disparities, especially among diverse populations (Mannell & Davis, 2019). Essential components encompass the development of beneficial policies, offering solutions, and meticulous planning of an intervention strategy tailored for diverse populations. By establishing a clear path towards success and ensuring process consistency, healthcare teams can enhance their knowledge and contribute to the betterment of underserved communities and minority groups (Anderson, 2021). Criteria to Evaluate the Success of the Plan Evaluation plays a pivotal role in assessing the impact of interventions and informs future improvement decisions. Learning and improving services within healthcare teams based on the evaluation of health interventions can significantly influence future policies. Evaluation of the intervention’s impact can utilize various administrative and clinically generated healthcare data, routinely collected. Success of the plan hinges on positive outcomes, including the number of patients receiving successful treatment, ensuring equal access to healthcare for all patients, promoting data transparency, and enhancing care effectiveness (Clarke et al., 2019). Cultural, ethnic, and traditional competence provide a framework for enhancing the health of all patients. Culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS) tailored to individual patient preferences and requirements help reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes across diverse populations. Disparities arise from socio-economic policies, disparities in healthcare awareness, and unequal access to healthcare services that disproportionately affect Hispanic and Black communities (Golden et al., 2021). Major Components of an Intervention and Health Promotion Plan for a Diverse Group Racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes-related complications are more prevalent among people of color and ethnic minorities. Epidemiological studies offer insights into these disparities and recommend a combination of strategies to reduce them, particularly primary prevention efforts (Northwestern Medicine, 2022). In West Virginia, diabetes is a leading cause of death, disproportionately affecting racial and ethnic minority groups, with Black adults experiencing 60% higher diabetes diagnosis rates than white adults in the United States. Access barriers and financial constraints hinder proper diabetes management in Black and Brown communities. The implementation of interventions such as regular exercise and check-ups can effectively prevent or delay diabetes onset in these communities (Northwestern Medicine, 2022). African Americans, Hispanics, and other Black and Brown communities stand to benefit significantly from the proposed promotional strategy. Raising awareness among healthcare staff about these disparities will lead to improved outcomes. Furthermore, fostering respect within the healthcare team for both themselves and patients, particularly in diverse populations, can help eliminate disparities. The proposed plan aims to enhance the quality of care provided to minority groups like African Americans and Hispanics, thus reducing healthcare disparities through equitable care provision. Epidemiological Evidence and Best Practices Epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary changes and increased physical activity can reduce the risk of developing diabetes in prediabetic adults. In West Virginia, where diabetes affects an estimated 12,377 people annually, the intervention plan implemented at West Virginia University Hospital emphasizes social support, medication adherence, and awareness campaigns to decrease diabetes prevalence. Social support from healthcare workers has been shown to mitigate the psychological and physiological effects of disease-related stress and bolster trust in the healthcare system. Community health workers play a vital role in delivering services and program content through one-on-one interactions or group sessions (American Diabetes Association, 2018). Better health outcomes are observed in patients who adhere to prescribed medications regularly, which is also indicative of healthier behaviors. Adherence and compliance are essential for improving health outcomes, especially for patients with chronic conditions requiring extended medical attention. However, the effectiveness of the plan may be influenced by factors such as advancing age, income levels, and access to physician support or visits (Mirzaei et al., 2020). Conflicting Evidence Culturally and linguistically diverse patients face disparities in access to healthcare services and encounter various obstacles. African Americans, Hispanics, and Latinos are at a higher risk of diabetes (Hendricks et al., 2021). Cultural competence is pivotal for enhancing the quality of care and eliminating biases in healthcare. Cultural competence also aids in destigmatizing healthcare and fostering understanding of ethnic minority groups (Handtke et al., 2019). Many diabetes patients from culturally diverse populations present unique challenges for healthcare providers worldwide, as different clinical encounters necessitate efficient selection of issues and contributing factors for discussion and address (Caballero, 2018). Evidence and Best Practices for Working in Diverse Populations Diversity has been shown to benefit organizations and society by enhancing health

NURS FPX 5003 Assessment 2 Interview Of Health Care Professional

Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 5003 Health Assessment and Promotion for Disease Prevention in Population-Focused Health Prof. Name Date Interview with a Healthcare Professional Conducting interviews with healthcare experts is a valuable and informative approach to gain insights into the diverse populations served by healthcare organizations and their healthcare needs. By combining healthcare data with the real-world experiences of healthcare professionals, more effective strategies and plans can be developed. Understanding how healthcare professionals typically communicate with patients, especially those from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, is essential to provide them with adequate health information for informed decision-making (Author, Year). Additionally, healthcare professionals can contribute to the development of best practices by observing the work of industry leaders. Implementation of best practices ensures compliance with relevant standards and healthcare guidelines. For this review, Dr. Mud Swamp, overseeing West Virginia College’s schools of dentistry, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health, and various affiliated health programs and clinical initiatives throughout the state, was interviewed. Dr. Swamp earned a Bachelor of Science degree and a medical degree from West Virginia College (West Virginia College, n.d). Strategies for Addressing Identified Healthcare Needs Various strategies can be employed to identify the healthcare needs of a community, including interviews with healthcare professionals and community leaders, stakeholder meetings, surveys, and demographic data analysis. According to Aron (2019), the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle is a powerful tool for accelerating organizational improvement. In clinical settings, the PDSA cycle is used to assess the quality of care and determine if improvements or changes are necessary. An external evaluator can assist organizations in planning and implementing changes and then assessing their success. Healthcare disparities, such as providing lower-quality care to sexual, ethnic, and gender minorities and individuals with low health literacy, persist in the United States (NHS England and NHS Improvement, 2021). The Cultural and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) standards were introduced in 2000 to address these disparities. In 2013, enhanced National CLAS standards were introduced to help healthcare organizations ensure health equity, with a focus on minority groups with low health literacy. Providing CLAS requires cultural humility and competence at the provider level (Minority Health, n.d.). Criteria for Evaluating the Strategies To evaluate the effectiveness of strategies, program organizers should consider questions such as “What achievements has the organization made during this period?” “How many diabetic patients were served?” and “What challenges positively influenced program implementation?” As Dineen-Griffin et al. (2019) suggest, healthcare organizations can either hire an external evaluator or assign an internal staff member to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare systems for future decision-making. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) DAC defines six evaluation criteria: relevance, soundness, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, and sustainability, along with two principles for their application (Alcayna and O’Donnell, 2022). According to the interview, West Virginia College hospitals employ various methods to provide Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) to diabetic patients. The organization uses a patient-centered communication style and addresses cultural barriers to care. To ensure effective interactions between a proactive care team and informed, engaged patients, care aligns with elements of the Chronic Care Model (Timpel et al., 2020). NURS FPX 5003 Assessment 2 Interview Of Health Care Professional Healthcare professionals can influence and engage the healthcare team, patients, and communities through various communication methods, including groups, face-to-face meetings, campaigns, and surveys (Gehlert et al., 2019). Patient outcomes can be improved by effectively communicating complex health information to diverse patient populations. For instance, it is more effective to convey to diabetic patients that maintaining a specific blood glucose level is crucial to reduce their risk of amputation and future complications related to kidneys and nerves, rather than simply instructing them to keep a specific blood glucose level. By gaining a deeper understanding of populations with low health literacy, the challenges associated with communicating with at-risk populations, and evidence-based best practices, healthcare providers can develop a framework to enhance health education. Benefits of Adhering to National CLAS Standards The National CLAS Standards create a framework for delivering services that respect patients’ preferences and communication needs while being culturally and linguistically appropriate. These standards can improve the ability to work and communicate effectively in multicultural settings, ultimately contributing to reducing healthcare disparities and achieving health equity. They help healthcare professionals learn from patients with different perspectives and beliefs, remain open to patients’ thoughts, and connect with their backgrounds (Annalee A, 2022). Epidemiological principles form the basis for disease surveillance and analysis by public health professionals. They focus on the causes of public health problems and diseases and the best treatments, interventions, and solutions. Epidemiologists can track diseases and predict their impact on the population through research and statistical analysis. It provides insight into how demographic characteristics can be used to identify groups at risk for a particular outcome. Demographic characteristics often include age, economic status, gender, and race/ethnicity. The primary task of epidemiology is to describe the occurrence of diseases and note differences in disease occurrence among different groups. To assess this disease burden, epidemiologically specific terms such as frequency, expected impact, and survival measures are required (Harvard Medical School, 2022). Organization’s Strengths in Addressing National CLAS Standards The West Virginia College hospital’s commitment to implementing and adhering to the National CLAS Standards has led to significant efforts to address healthcare disparities and meet the needs of vulnerable populations, such as the African American community. Successful implementation of the National CLAS Standards requires organizational commitment. The National CLAS Standards have contributed to raising awareness of the need for culturally and linguistically appropriate services (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2022). By setting an example for healthcare organizations, the National CLAS Standards aim to advance clinical prevention and help eliminate healthcare disparities. The gap between recommended healthcare best practices and the care provided to patients is known as a healthcare gap. If staff fail to adhere to any of the key aspects of the CLAS standards, such as treating all patients equally, acknowledging patients’ cultural health beliefs, or addressing language barriers, a gap

NURS FPX 5003 Assessment 1 Identifying Community Health Needs

Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 5003 Health Assessment and Promotion for Disease Prevention in Population-Focused Health Prof. Name Date Identifying Community Health Needs The assessment of the well-being of a state or community necessitates a comprehensive process, involving healthcare organizations, to identify and analyze healthcare needs related to a specific disease and its impact on a particular region. This process enables healthcare professionals to prioritize health needs and develop strategies to address unmet community needs. This study focuses on the prevalence of Diabetes in West Virginia, the identification of healthcare needs among patients, and the communities most affected by this disease. Data for this study is sourced from the State Department of Health, American Diabetes Association, County Health Data, and the American Journal of Diabetes. Demographic Characteristics for a State Demographic characteristics encompass elements such as population composition, race, ethnicity, disease prevalence, religious affiliation, educational attainment, and mental health diagnoses. These demographic factors often underpin behavioral patterns. Age plays a pivotal role in shaping an individual’s experiences within society. Additionally, demographic data includes community attributes like income levels, employment status, gender distribution, educational attainment, and commuting patterns. Racial categorization is frequently incorporated into demographic data (Minc et al., 2020). Within racial categories, such as Asian, White, Black, and African American, diverse ethnicities and cultural backgrounds exist. Patient-specific information, including birthdates and insurance details, is part of illness demographics, which streamline medical billing, enhance healthcare quality, and bolster cultural competence. According to estimates from the United States Census Bureau in 2018, West Virginia’s total population was 1,775,156, with 93.1% White, 3.7% Black, 0.3% Asian, and 1.9% Latino. NURS FPX 5003 Assessment 1 Identifying Community Health Needs Approximately 14.1% of the population is under 65 and living with a disability. Between 2017 and 2021, approximately 88.1% of the population completed high school. A significant proportion of the population suffers from multiple chronic conditions, including diabetes, cancer, kidney and lung diseases, arthritis, and risk factors like obesity and high blood pressure. Disease prevention and health promotion share many common goals and functions. The population-based approach to prevention suggests that interventions should be applied to entire populations to effectively alter the distribution of disease risk factors (Minc et al., 2020). Population health promotion and prevention initiatives primarily address environmental resilience and equity in human healthcare services. Trends Regarding Population in Demographic Reports Between 2010 and 2021, West Virginia’s population increased every two out of eleven years. The most significant population decline occurred between 2016 and 2017, with a 0.8% decrease. Approximately 16.2% of adults in West Virginia, roughly 232,336 individuals, have diabetes, with demographic reports indicating an increasing trend among American Indians and non-Hispanic Blacks (American Diabetes Association, 2022). Similar to clinical medicine’s focus on disease development and expression in individuals, epidemiology can be regarded as the study of disease development and expression within communities. Public health officials are increasingly concerned about the persistent and, in some cases, growing significance of diseases. Epidemiology relies on key concepts, including population analysis and comparison. Public health epidemiologists are primarily responsible for disease research, assessment, and policy formulation (ADA, 2022). Essential epidemiological tools encompass data overview, program data analysis supervision, and prompt assessment. Different tools may offer distinct types of information, even if they frequently cover the same health outcomes or indicators. The Diabetes in West Virginia report from 2021 collected information on participants’ age, gender, and ethnicity, with questions focusing on general knowledge of type 2 diabetes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Impact of Diabetes on the Specific Group in West Virginia Diabetes affects 16% of West Virginia’s population, with 17% among the Black community, 16% among the White population, and 10% among multiracial individuals (Division of Health Promotion and Chronic Diseases, 2021). American Indians, as one of the racial groups covered in the United States Census, have a significantly higher diabetes risk, more than twice that of White individuals, who have an 8% adult diabetes prevalence. Population health is influenced by economic well-being, healthcare quality, and overall quality of life. The multifaceted nature of this issue presents challenges in quantifying population health status. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), over 34 million Americans had diabetes in 2018, experiencing its profound consequences. Medical expenses for diabetes patients are approximately twice as high as those for individuals with other diseases. In 2018, the CDC’s Division of Diabetes Translation allocated $926,068 in grants for diabetes education and prevention in West Virginia (American Diabetes Association, 2018). Diabetes can lead to severe complications, including heart disorders, blindness, and even death. Communication of Demographic Data and Health Needs Research by Hermann et al. (2019) suggests that patient characteristics and demographics significantly influence patients’ perceptions of communication in healthcare settings. Positive behaviors exhibited by healthcare providers, such as courteous treatment, positively impact patients’ perception of care. In a fast-paced healthcare environment, individualized patient care and clear communication are essential to ensure patient comprehension. Health authorities can effectively communicate with affected communities and formulate improvement plans by promoting health literacy. Respect and dignity in patient care are paramount values. These values are linked to actions that support the healthcare team in providing exceptional care and support within the healthcare industry. Positive effects on patient satisfaction were observed when nurses incorporated practices such as keeping patients informed of care delays, ensuring data privacy, and responding appropriately. An individual’s characteristics, behaviors, and their social and economic environment all influence health promotion and well-being (Hwang & Oh, 2020). Conclusion In summary, identifying and addressing community health needs require comprehensive strategies and intervention plans. Understanding a state’s demographic characteristics is crucial for healthcare professionals to implement appropriate preventive measures and promote health. Epidemiology plays a pivotal role in overseeing the analysis of program data and facilitating prompt evaluation. References American Diabetes Association. (2022, July 28). Statistics about Diabetes | ADA. Diabetes.org. https://diabetes.org/about-us/statistics/about-diabetes American Diabetes Association. (2018). The burden of diabetes in West Virginia. https://diabetes.org/sites/default/files/202111/ADV_2021_State_Fact_sheets_West%20Virginia_rev.pdf Division of Health Promotion and Chronic Diseases. (2021). Diabetes in West Virginia. Wv.gov. https://dhhr.wv.gov/hpcd/FocusAreas/wvdiabetes/Pages/DiabetesinWestVirginia.aspx Hermann, R. M., Long, E.,