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Capella 4900 Assessment 5

Capella 4900 Assessment 5 Intervention Presentation and Capstone Video Reflection Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4900 Capstone Project for Nursing Prof. Name Date Introduction  Hello everyone, I hope you are all doing well. I’m ______ working as a registered nurse in the Holy Valley Hospital and I’m here to present you all my video presentation. In this video presentation, I’ll be sharing an evidence-based intervention that I have developed in my capstone project and made an effort to implement as well. This intervention plan is targeted at my patient John who I happened to check during my hospital duty hours. John is dianoged with COPD for a few years and had worsen condition due to frequent exacerbations. For this purpose, I developed an intervention plan that best suited his health needs and preferences. So, let’s begin to see how this intervention made a significant difference in John’s health condition. Contribution of an Intervention to Patient Satisfaction and Quality of Care Patient satisfaction and quality of care are two important goals that every healthcare professional aims to achieve. Patient satisfaction comes from the overall experience regarding the healthcare services that patients’ receives during their hospital visit. There are various factors that impact patient satisfaction such as effective communication, empathy and respect, access to care, hospital environment, and patient involvement. Quality of care can be defined as the degree to which the provided healthcare services are fulfilingl the standards of practices to achieve desired & targeted healthcare outcomes. This is measured through different indicators including patient outcomes, adherence to clinical guidelines and standards, patient safety, and hospital readmission rates (MacGillivray, 2020). In John’s case, the intervention developed and implemented was telehealth and remote monitoring of vital signs, symptoms, and medication adherence along with self-management education. These interventions were designed considering patient satisfaction and quality of care into account. Before this intervention plan, John faced various complications including shortness of breath and low-oxygen saturation due to uncontrolled COPD symptoms and frequent exacerbations. This patient-centered intervention for John brought positive health outcomes as telehealth and remote monitoring proved to be effective for John. Capella 4900 Assessment 5 John reported that he was feeling healthier by staying at home and acquiring care treatment through telehealth. Furthermore, in his feedback report, John said that remote monitoring was the best strategy in this intervention plan as he needed timely reminders and consistent monitoring by nurses about lifestyle changes, medication adherence, and daily symptoms related to COPD. There were a few unfortunate scenarios where telehealth was not possible due to some technical issues at John’s end. But overall telehealth made a significant difference in John’s COPD condition.  Lastly, his feedback on self-management education was equally positive in which he said he was more aware of his disease, its risk factors and progression causes. He was consciously living in a tobacco-free environment and did daily walk while trying to eat healthy as much as possible. His improved health with fewer exacerbations showed that the quality of care delivered was adequate and enhanced patient satisfaction as a result of the proposed intervention implementation.  Use of Evidence & Peer Reviewed Literature to Plan and Implement Capstone Project In John’s case of COPD, I made sure that the intervention I choose to plan and implement is evidence-based and inspired by peer-reviewed literature, as the evidence-based and peer-reviewed literature give us correct and credible data on the basis of research data. Therefore, this intervention brought positive and effective outcomes in John’s health. Due to this reason, one must use evidence and peer-reviewed literature to always plan and implement a capstone project. In my capstone project, various evidence-based practices informed me about the aforementioned interventions that were effective for COPD management. For example, in a study report by Scully and colleagues (2021), telehealth and remote monitoring for COPD patients were reviewed in COVID-19 and its future aspects were shared. This study showed that COPD was well managed during COVID-19 with the help of telehealth and remote monitoring of symptoms and medication adherence. The study further said that similar positive effects are possible with thoughtful planning of implementation of COPD telehealth & remote monitoring Another study reviewed the effectiveness of self-management education in COPD patients which included physical activity, smoking cessation, dyspnea, self-efficacy about mental health, quality of life, and medication adherence. The study promoted the implementation of self-management education on COPD due to its effective results of reduced hospital readmissions and improved quality of life in COPD patients (Shnaigat et al., 2021). This similar strategy was part of John’s intervention plan which resulted in his improved quality of life and enhanced patient satisfaction & safety. Therefore, the use of evidence and peer-reviewed literature in planning and implementing a capstone project ensures that your project is well grounded in current knowledge, informed by evidence-based practices, and capable of producing positive and relevant outcomes. Leveraged Health Technology to Improve Outcomes or Communication in Capstone Project In this modern era where technologies have the potential to replace or augment human tasks in different areas of life, health technologies are impacting lives positively while creating ease for patients and health systems. These health technologies can be artificial intelligence technologies for diagnosing and interpreting medical images such as X-ray and MRI, telehealth, and remote monitoring which facilitate remote consultations between patients and healthcare professionals. Remote monitoring devices like wearable sensors have the potential to gather patient data and deliver it to physicians’ and nurses’ portals which are in sync with these sensors. These health technologies and more are progressively mitigating health problems and promoting patient safety. In my capstone project, health technologies were used to the fullest in John’s case. As telehealth and remote monitoring were primary interventions in my capstone project, these technologies promoted health outcomes by improving the one-on-one communication between patients and healthcare providers. The patient was able to raise his health-related queries comfortably in remote clinical sessions and the undivided attention of healthcare professionals resulted in keen involvement which ensured appropriate and authentic provision

Capella 4900 Assessment 4

Capella 4900 Assessment 4 Patient, Family, or Population Health Problem Solution Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4900 Capstone Project for Nursing Prof. Name Date Patient, Family, or Population Problem Solution This paper is based on the identified health problem of a patient named John who is 45 years old male suffering from COPD and requires a health problem solution. John, being an ex-smoker has damaged his lungs to a significant extent and his health condition is worsening day by day with severe exacerbations. Therefore, it is integral to develop a health problem solution for John and other patients like him as it is a relevant and common condition to our professional practice. Role of Leadership and Change Management in Addressing COPD In any professional setup, leadership and change management are essential to bring positive changes and outcomes. Likewise, in healthcare systems where the patient’s quality of life is deteriorating and hospital readmission or revisit rates are increasing, there is a dire need for leadership and change management. Leadership and change management are important for developing a clear vision, the expected goals, and the outcomes of COPD treatment. Leaders can foster a collaborative culture where all healthcare providers can participate in providing effective care treatment to COPD patients such as pulmonologists, nurses, pharmacists, and respiratory therapists. Change management such as implementing changes in clinical practices, guidelines, and health technologies also plays a vital role in addressing COPD (Wanser & Luckel, 2021). In the case of John, leadership and change management helped massively in addressing his condition of COPD. The transformational leadership strategy helped physicians and nurses to make informed and wise decisions in worsening cases of COPD in John’s case, which led to a systematic delivery of care treatments. Furthermore, nurses were confident in acquiring leadership roles in this strategy and improved their working with other health professionals including physicians and pharmacists.  Capella 4900 Assessment 4 The change management strategies such as establishing a clear vision, building effective communication, and training and support sessions for health providers played a convincing role in the development of intervention best suited for John’s health condition. The change management strategies influenced the development of the intervention as these strategies prioritized the systems that were crucially needed and could potentially enhance the patient’s condition of COPD. For example, the IT department participated to include its services in better delivery of care treatment (Moussa et al., 2019).  Nursing ethics guided nurses in the development of an intervention for COPD patients like John. These nursing principles are autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and confidentiality (Haddad & Geiger, 2022). Nurses were aware that patients have the right of making a decision about their own intervention which led them to collaborate with patients and develop an intervention that best suited them and their health needs. Furthermore, nurses were benign and compassionate in developing patient-centered health interventions which focused on their ease and well-being. Nurses were aware of the principles of confidentiality as they need to abide by the principles of the HIPAA Act. Therefore, they were conscious of respecting patients’ confidentiality and privacy and overall followed the nursing ethics for better interventions.  Communication and Collaboration Strategies to Improve COPD Outcomes For effective and desired outcomes, it is necessary to implement best-practice communication and collaboration strategies in healthcare systems. Some of these communication and collaboration strategies which can improve COPD outcomes in the patients like John are active listening, goal setting, and patient-centered care.  Healthcare professionals should take the time to listen to patients’ concerns, experiences, complaints, and questions with great interest and eagerness. This will create a supportive and empathetic environment where the patient will feel heard, valued, and comfortable sharing his concerns about COPD and overall health condition. Healthcare professionals should engage with patients in establishing goals that are realistic and achievable. These goals can be adherence to medication, improving physical activity, regular monitoring of symptoms, and smoking prevention. By adopting the patient-centered care approach, healthcare providers are able to consider the individual and customized needs & preferences of patients. This will create an engaging bond between patients and healthcare providers, further facilitating the care treatment. Furthermore, using a common and simple language to ensure that the patient is able to understand medical information and instruction is another communication strategy that will improve the outcomes of care treatment. As the patient can grasp information only in a language he is familiar with; therefore, clear communication will enable John to follow guides and education on medication and treatment and improve the outcomes (Noordman et al., 2020).   Capella 4900 Assessment 4 These communication and collaboration strategies can effectively improve the COPD care treatment outcomes in John which will ultimately improve his quality of life and safety. Besides these strategies, it is pivotal to obtain input from the patients as it can help health professionals to create treatment plans tailored to patients’ needs, preferences, and values. Additionally, the benefits of obtaining input from patients through effective collaboration with patients,  include improved chances of treatment adherence as their valuable participation in providing information will foster a sense of ownership and empowerment which will likely increase treatment adherence. Moreover, hospital professionals can identify and address their concerns and barriers permitting patient-centered care and other solutions based on their concerns.  Role of State Board Nursing Practice Standards & Governmental Policies  The American Nursing Association has provided standards of professional performance and these standards have guided the development of the proposed intervention. These guiding standards are assessment, diagnosis, outcome identification, planning, implementation, and evaluation (American Nurses Association, 2015). The nurses following these standards, in collaboration with other health providers, proposed the intervention plan for John considering the outcomes that are identified in the standard practice step of outcome identification. Once the outcomes are identified, the health professionals developed an intervention for John’s condition COPD.   The Affordable Care Act (ACA) facilitated the development of intervention by providing the guiding principles for health insurers with respect to people like John who suffer from chronic conditions or pre-existing conditions

Capella 4900 Assessment 3

Capella 4900 Assessment 3  Technology, Care Coordination, and Community Resources Considerations Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4900 Capstone Project for Nursing Prof. Name Date Introduction The main objective of this assessment is to analyze John’s health problem i.e. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) through the lens of technology, care coordination, and community resources available to treat and manage his condition. For this purpose, I spent 2 direct practicum hours with John exploring these aspects of his condition. In the following section, the analysis of healthcare technology, care coordination, and community resources is concluded with respect to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Impact of Healthcare Technology on COPD  With the advent of time, the development of technology has eased human life in all areas. Similarly, healthcare technologies like digital healthcare have emerged as a new trend ever since the COVID-19 era started. Digital healthcare is a field of medicine with the potential to fulfill the clinical needs of patients. In COPD, digital health is of great importance as it can provide a variety of tools such as self-management plans, educational videos, inhaler training videos, feedback to patients and healthcare professionals, monitoring of exacerbations, and pulmonary rehabilitation (Watson & Wilkinson, 2022).  Another study states that telemedicine can be utilized in three ways i.e. synchronous in which real-time video conferencing or telephone calls can take place for COPD patients, asynchronous which will involve remote consultation by using emails, smartphone messages, and notifications. The third type is remote monitoring where COPD patients can record and communicate to healthcare staff about their COPD symptoms. For example, smartphone applications record COPD symptoms, physical activities, and vital signs at home. These telemedicine-based tools play an essential role in reducing exacerbations, managing COPD and improving their quality of life (Ding et al., 2019). Evidence-Based Advantages and Disadvantages Telehealth-based COPD care including monitoring the oxygen saturation, heart rate, and breathlessness has allowed alarms to get triggered to notify healthcare providers during the worsening times of exacerbations. The study also reported that telehealth was helpful in reducing hospital readmission rates and emergency department visits. The digital health apps with wearable physiological sensors are advantageous in monitoring pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate which will manage COPD conditions effectively (Watson & Wilkinson, 2022). The patients can get treatment without the need for traveling to health care which will eventually reduce the financial burden on the patients. Moreover, the clinics have a greater capacity to check more patients when video-conferencing consultations replace in-person consultations. This increases the productivity of the system and reduces costs to both the systems and individuals. (Snoswell et al., 2020).  The potential disadvantages of the aforementioned technologies include low patient compliance, lack of personalization, and technical difficulties. The technology itself is costly as the software and applications need to be purchased and managed with great expenditures (Cortelyou-Ward et al., 2020). Furthermore, security concerns remain a major disadvantage where the information can be stolen or leaked through these technologies. The lack of physical interaction as present in clinical settings to check physical examination is another limitation of utilizing these technologies for COPD (Gajarawala & Pelkowski, 2020). Current Technology in Professional Practice The current technology used in professional practice to manage COPD and its care is electronic health record (EHR) which is the electronic record of an individual in a clinical setup. This EHR includes all the relevant information on patients to health and wellness. From personal information, and past medical history to the current medication prescribed, everything is recorded in the EHR records of every patient for better access, care provision, and data transfer within the hospital. In the case of COPD management, EHR has been helpful, particularly in recording the interpretations of spirometry measurements as spirometry data is required to confirm a secure and correct diagnosis of COPD. Moreover, reliable EHR recording in COPD care is essential for the prevention of exacerbations, long-term surveillance, and acute decision-making (Harries & White, 2021). The potential barriers to EHR are privacy and security concerns, data quality and accuracy, low awareness, lack of trust and belief in EHRs, poor training, and technical support, lack of user involvement, and literacy and skill requirements in technology for appropriate working. Implementing EHR is not easy and smooth as it required a great amount of cost with $162,000 in the first year of implementation and $85,000 a year in maintenance costs.  Care Coordination, Community Resources, and COPD COPD is a chronic condition that requires the joint effort of all healthcare providers to adequate and effective care treatment for John’s condition. John’s requirement of monitored oxygen saturation, controlled symptoms, and exacerbations, and proper medication adherence is achieved when all healthcare professionals work in coordination to provide desired and effective care treatment. Care coordination is an act of providing care treatment to patients with elaborated and effective collaboration among healthcare professionals such as clinicians, nurses, pharmacists, and others (Kianfar et al., 2019). In cases of inadequate implementation of care coordination, unfortunate events like increased hospital readmission rates, increased healthcare costs, and long hospital stays take place. Similarly, early diagnosis of disease and initial ABC therapy to patients, and further self-management education require care coordination in a patient-centered system (Pierucci et al., 2021). Capella 4900 Assessment 3 Various community resources are provided on COPD that can be utilized to improve John’s condition and its effective management. CDC has provided a COPD National Action Plan in collaboration with the National Institute of Health and other federal agencies. This patient-centered roadmap for COPD is one of the effective community resources that a patient and health professionals can utilize to improve COPD and its worsening health symptoms (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2018). Another community resource that can be utilized by health professionals to improve the COPD condition of patients including John is COPD guidelines and treatment by American Lung Association (ALA). These guidelines come from two sources i.e. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and the American Thoracic Society. These guidelines include diagnosis, management, treatment, and rehabilitation

Capella 4900 Assessment 2

Capella 4900 Assessment 2 Assessing the Problem: Quality, Safety, and Cost Consideration Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4900 Capstone Project for Nursing Prof. Name Date Identified Health Problem The identified health problem in this capstone project is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) which 45-year-old John is suffering from. His entire life of tobacco smoking led to the onset of this disease. Despite his smoking cessation, the lungs have been damaged enough to leave John in this state where he often experiences exacerbations with difficulty in breathing. This paper is focused on assessing COPD from a quality, safety, and cost considerations perspective.  Impact of COPD on Quality, Safety, and Cost COPD is a group of diseases that cause blockage of airflow resulting in breathing-related problems. This includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. About 16 million people in America confront breathing difficulties as a result of COPD (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Million other Americans have suffered from COPD without knowing of having acquired it. Hence, they remain untreated and further COPD-associated health consequences come forward. The presence of COPD results in acute exacerbation also known as flare-up, and presents with an increased level of dyspnea and worsening of chronic cough.  The prevalence of exacerbations is high, as 50% of patients with COPD experience exacerbations according to multiple long-term studies. These exacerbations due to COPD impact the quality of care as sometimes prompt care treatment is required and hospital readmission may take place (Hurst et al., 2020). Patients suffering from COPD also have a significant comorbid disease burden such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, osteoporosis, skeletal muscle dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and gastrointestinal diseases. This additionally impacts the quality of care as the health professional need to manage COPD along with comorbidities (Robert A. Wise, 2022). In John’s case, his poor management of COPD due to frequent exacerbations was obvious as the healthcare workforce was unable to cope with his exacerbations due to the negligent behavior of health professionals and long-waiting times. Therefore, it is essential to have a system or strategies developed for exacerbated COPD patients in hospitals so that immediate relief can be provided to these patients and the quality of care can be improved. Capella 4900 Assessment 2 Another aspect that is impacted due to COPD is patient safety. This is one of the significant targets for all healthcare systems and patients also deem it as their desired and expected outcome and right to be fulfilled by hospital teams. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease impacts patient safety as when the patient with COPD experiences exacerbations and is unable to acquire proper care, it may lead to further complications like rapid disease progression, fatigue, muscle weakness, loss of physical activity, the decline in lung functions, and mortality (Machado et al., 2022). This shows that COPD impacts patient safety and enhances the chances of mortality when it is not treated and managed on time. Healthcare organizations must consider patient safety an important factor to improve patient safety. In the case of John, his disease progression with no improvement and multiple hospital visits showed that patient safety of John was highly impacted by COPD. Capella 4900 Assessment 2 The American Lung Association (ALA) states the total economic cost of COPD is nearly $50 billion every year. The $29.5 billion are utilized for direct healthcare expenditures and $12.4 billion are expended on direct mortality costs. Furthermore, $8 billion costs are related to indirect morbidity costs (American Lung Association, n.d.). These valuable statistics show that COPD impacts both the system and the individual’s cost. In the case of John, the costs incurred by him due to COPD are too much to afford as his financial resources are not sufficient to cope with his conditions. Therefore, his symptoms are worsened and hospital revisits do not reduce. In our nursing practice at hospitals, the COPD burden is high and there is poor management of patients with COPD as described in supporting evidence with increasing costs incurred on systems and individuals. Hence, patient safety is compromised as well in our hospital.       The Nursing State Board Practices, Governmental and Organizational Policies  The American Nursing Association provides standard guidelines for nurses so that nurses perform their duties up to mark and improve the quality of care and patient safety. The ANA states that various organizational involvement can contribute towards enhanced quality of care provided to patients and patient safety (American Nurses Association, n.d.). In the case of COPD, nurses can engage with COPD-associated organizations to improve the quality of care treatment delivery to patients with COPD and enhance patient safety. For example, nurses in concordance with American Lungs Association (ALA) guidelines can augment the quality of care treatment and enhance patient safety. For instance, the ALA guidelines on raising awareness about COPD among community members and designing educational programs to improve the quality of care can be done with the collaborative effort of nurses and other health professionals.   Several governmental organizations have provided standard practices on COPD that impact the quality of care, patient safety, and costs incurred to both the systems and individuals. One of these organizations is American Lung Association. The Lung Association advocates for policies that will improve COPD and prevent it. For example, increasing access to pulmonary rehabilitation services for COPD patients, promoting public awareness of COPD, increasing cigarette taxes, comprehensive smoke-free indoor air laws, and promoting fully-funded tobacco and smoking cessation programs (American Lung Association, 2023). These government-based interventions and policies give a positive impact on improving quality of care and patient safety. Capella 4900 Assessment 2 Another governmental policy The Affordable Care Act impacts the costs incurred to patients with COPD. The ACA reduces the cost burden of all chronic diseases including COPD as US-based COPD patients can not be rejected or charged high for health insurance on the marketplace. The expansion programs i.e. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have further eased low-income patients in getting affordable and quality coverage of health treatments. Furthermore, young patients of COPD under the age

Capella 4900 Assessment 1

Capella 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem: Leadership, Collaboration, Communication, Change Management, and Policy Considerations Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4900 Capstone Project for Nursing Prof. Name Date Introduction to the Identified Problem and its Relevance This report aims to probe into the problem of a high incidence and ineffective management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) among the middle-aged population in a particular urban neighborhood, examining this issue through the lenses of leadership, collaboration, communication, change management, and policy. These perspectives are integral to fostering effective transformations within the healthcare environment. Consider Mr. John, a 45-year-old resident of the aforementioned neighborhood. Mr. John, who has a high school education and works as a construction supervisor, is currently uninsured due to the recent loss of his job. He lives with his wife and two school-aged children, who offer him emotional support. In addition to COPD, Mr. John also has comorbidities of hypertension and obesity. The patient, Mr. John, became under my care after his recent hospitalization for a severe exacerbation of COPD. Following his discharge, he was referred to me as his primary nurse for ongoing management and support. Capella 4900 Assessment 1 Despite numerous interventions and adjustments to his medication regimen, Mr. John’s COPD management remains suboptimal, leading to frequent hospital visits and readmissions that impose significant physical, emotional, and financial burden on him and his family. This situation highlights the need to critically evaluate the current COPD management strategies and interventions employed in our healthcare setting, taking into account Mr. John’s specific circumstances. Inappropriate management of COPD can result in severe complications such as respiratory failure, heart diseases, and even death. This issue not only affects the individual’s quality of life and overall well-being, but also impacts the healthcare organization’s performance and reputation, owing to increased hospital admissions (Ebrahimi et al., 2022). John was an active smoker until a decade ago, which has greatly contributed to his COPD. Even though he has quit smoking, the damage done remains significant and exacerbates his health condition (Fan Chiang et al., 2022). His last admission to our hospital was just two weeks ago and, despite medication adjustments and planned follow-ups, his health condition has not significantly improved since the previous visit. As a baccalaureate-prepared nurse, it is my responsibility to facilitate care for patients suffering from chronic conditions like COPD and ensure they receive comprehensive and effective care (Ebrahimi et al., 2022). This duty involves working with the interdisciplinary team to develop and implement evidence-based interventions aimed at reducing hospital admissions, improving patient outcomes, and enhancing the overall COPD management (Fan Chiang et al., 2022). By addressing this issue, my goal is to assist patients like John to better manage their chronic conditions, promote healthier lifestyle choices, and improve their quality of life while simultaneously reducing the strain on our healthcare system. Literature and Professional Evidence Analysis Consistency with Literature and Practice: Numerous peer-reviewed studies affirm the efficacy of several interventions such as smoking cessation programs, pulmonary rehabilitation, and targeted health education in managing COPD effectively, thus improving patients’ quality of life. For example, studies have established that personalized pharmaceutical care and patient counseling significantly enhance medication adherence and health-related quality of life among COPD patients (Rompicharla & Swaroop, 2021). This evidence resonates with my experience in nursing practice where similar interventions have proven effective. Data reliability can be gauged through several factors. Reliable data is usually characterized by large and diverse sample sizes, consistent findings across multiple studies, the presence of control groups, clear and unbiased methodologies, and peer-reviewed sources. Conversely, unreliable data may present with inconsistent or contradicting results, small or homogeneous sample sizes, absence of control groups, unclear or biased methodologies, lack of peer-review, or information obtained from outdated or non-credible sources (Izquierdo et al., 2021). The literature delineates numerous barriers impeding effective COPD management. These include inadequate patient awareness and understanding of the disease, limited access to rehabilitation programs, unavailability or inaccessibility of healthcare services, particularly in rural or underserviced areas, and environmental factors such as air pollution and second-hand smoke exposure (Rompicharla & Swaroop, 2021). Financial constraints and socio-cultural factors can also limit the adoption of evidence-based practices. Capella 4900 Assessment 1 Research indicates that strict adherence to guidelines such as the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) standards leads to significant improvement in patient outcomes (Chinai et al., 2019). These standards encompass diagnostic measures, pharmacological management, and non-pharmacological strategies such as pulmonary rehabilitation and self-management interventions, all of which are vital for comprehensive COPD management.  Barriers to effective COPD management could also extend into policy-making. A lack of representation or advocacy for the specific needs of COPD patients could exist. However, the active role of nurses in this area can play a transformative role. As front-line healthcare providers, nurses can advocate for patient needs, contribute to the development of preventive measures, and facilitate improved health literacy. Their unique insights into patient experiences can also aid in reducing hospital readmissions and enhancing overall COPD management, directly influencing the outcomes for COPD patients (Czira et al., 2023). Within this context, the Self-Care Deficit Theory by Dorothea Orem can serve as a valuable guiding framework. This theory emphasizes the patient’s self-care capabilities and highlights the role of nursing in educating and empowering the patient. This theoretical perspective can guide the implementation of self-management strategies and educational interventions for COPD patients. By focusing on improving patients’ abilities to manage their condition, we can address some of the barriers to effective COPD management and aim for improved health outcomes (Jeddi et al., 2023). Impact of Nursing Practice Standards and Policies on the Problem The American Nurses Association (ANA) has standards that significantly influence the management of COPD. For instance, ANA’s Standard of Professional Performance emphasizes that nurses must evaluate their practice to ensure it is consistent with professional standards (Pleasants et al., 2019). This guideline could affect COPD management as it encourages nurses to continuously review and update their knowledge about COPD management strategies, ensuring they provide

Capella 4060 Assessment 4

Capella 4060 Assessment 4 Health Promotion Plan Presentation Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4060 Practicing in the Community to Improve Population Health Prof. Name Date Health Promotion Plan Good morning everyone! My name is _______ and I am a community health nurse at Vila Health Center. Welcome to today’s presentation. You all may be wondering what is a health promotion plan and why you all are here. So, a health promotion plan is created by healthcare professionals on specific health-related concerns for communities that have a higher prevalence of those concerns. This is developed mutually with governmental bodies to enhance awareness among the people of the community and reduce the incidences of the addressed concerns. Nurses are trained for developing these health promotion plans so that they can bring effective reforms to the communities (Zheng et al., 2020). The focus of today’s health promotion plan is teen pregnancies. I have designed this health promotion plan for teenage students, community leaders, and local organizations so that they are aware of teen pregnancies, and poor health consequences and take appropriate measures to reduce the incidences. Such awareness sessions will also be conducted in other schools in the community which will continue for one year. Then, along with community leaders, some policies will be established to ensure that there is a reduction in teen pregnancy by at least 10%. There will be continuous monitoring and evaluation to identify the effectiveness of the awareness sessions too.  Health Promotion Plan for Teen Pregnancy  Teenagers getting pregnant is becoming a common healthcare concern in today’s world. It is also a prominent public health concern in the US which is evident in a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2019. The report reveals that a total of 167 births were performed in 1000 teenage girls in the United States (CDC, 2021). World Health Organization reveals that low and middle-income countries had approximately 21 million teenage pregnancies (15-19 years females) and half of these pregnancies were the result of unintentional acts resulting in 55% of abortions (WHO, 2022). The most affected age group is 15-19 years of age where various social and environmental factors play their roles to influence these behaviors Some of these factors are lack of knowledge, peer pressure, alcohol consumption, lack of parental support, and disputes among parents, and media influence (Ara�z-Ledezma et al., 2019; Yee et al., 2019). Teenage pregnancies not only harm the child but also imposes various health consequences on teen mothers too. Let’s discuss some of the health consequences of teenage pregnancy.  Health Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy Teenage pregnancy can increase the risks of eclampsia (a brain condition that causes seizures/coma), and infection of the uterus lining which in medical terms is called puerperal endometritis (WHO, 2022). Furthermore, many diseases can be transmitted because of unsafe sexual practices like HIV-AIDS, Chlamydia, gonorrhea, etc. These are called sexually transmitted diseases (Wilkins et al., 2022). Anemia is another complication of teenage pregnancy that results in the loss of red blood cells in the female body which can further lead to various complications like premature delivery, and the risk of mortality for the child and mother too (Gurung et al., 2020). If this pregnancy is continued, it can lead to preterm birth, several birth defects in neonates, and a high risk of low birth weight in the babies. Moreover, it can cause mortality for babies as well as mothers during pregnancy or at the time of birth (WHO, 2022). Unmanageable pregnancies can lead to unsafe abortions which can cause problems like chronic vaginal infections and in severe cases may cause infertility or death (Lambonmung et al., 2022). These health effects and poor quality of life during pregnancy and after birth can negatively impact the mental health of these females. Some of the mental risks associated are depression, anxiety, personality disorders, and mistrust which makes teens vulnerable to suicidal attempts and actual suicides.  Evidence-based Strategies to Address Health Needs Some of the ways in which community organizations and healthcare professionals can opt to prevent teenage pregnancies are; 1) effective measures to manage the consumption of alcohol among adolescents (Sah & Mahendru, 2022). Alcohol consumption makes an individual perform activities that are unhealthy for their lives such as involvement in sexual practices with multiple partners and lack of use of contraceptives which can lead to adolescent pregnancies. Governmental organizations can play an important role in increasing the use of contraceptive measures by enhancing accessibility and improving awareness. This includes the availability of free/minimum-costed contraception pills and devices. Healthcare professionals must be trained to discuss these contraceptive measures with their patients and their families (Mann et al., 2019). They must instruct teenagers to not get involved in sexual practices, should promote the use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC)  as an effective strategy for controlling pregnancies, and must train them on other options too along with elaborating on the benefits and disadvantages of all these methods.  Teenagers’ Actions to Prevent Pregnancies So, now you all are aware of the prevalence of teen pregnancies and how community organizations and healthcare professionals can help, it’s time to recognize the actions which teenagers as a vulnerable population can initiate to reduce the risk of getting pregnant. Firstly, it is essential to avoid sexual practices at this early age of life. To successfully achieve this, interaction with sexually active peers should be eluded, and behaviors like watching porn/adult movies, masturbation, and consumption of alcohol should be eliminated. It is essential to talk with parents or guardians regarding sexual desires and how to avoid them. Even if they choose to be sexually active, then it is imperative to know birth control methods like condoms, contraceptive pills, LARC, and intrauterine devices. Seeking help from parents/guardians or healthcare providers to effectively use these methods and reduce the risks of pregnancies (CDC, 2022; HHS Office of Population Affairs, n.d.) Developing SMART Goals  SMART goals are described as goals specifically designed for an area of improvement, which are measurable in terms

Capella 4060 Assessment 3

Capella 4060 Assessment 3

Capella 4060 Assessment 3 Disaster Recovery Plan Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4060 Practicing in the Community to Improve Population Health Prof. Name Date Disaster Recovery Plan The following assessment presents a comprehensive disaster recovery plan aimed at lessening health disparities and improving access to community services in the aftermath of a disaster. This plan is developed for the Valley city considering the unique needs and challenges faced by its diverse population. By applying the MAP-IT framework and incorporating evidence-based strategies, this plan seeks to address the determinants of health, overcome communication barriers, promote interprofessional collaboration, and align with relevant health and governmental policies. The goal is to ensure the equitable distribution of resources, support the well-being of community members, and achieve the Healthy People 2020 goals and 2030 objectives. Through collaborative efforts, proactive planning, and the implementation of targeted interventions, this disaster recovery plan aims to enhance the resilience and recovery of the Valley city. Determinants of Health and Barriers Impacting Safety, Health, and Disaster Recovery Efforts When evaluating a train derailment situation, there are distinct cultural, social, and economic aspects that shape health outcomes and pose challenges inhibiting safety, health, and disaster recovery efforts in the community. These factors are explained individually below, highlighting their interdependencies and combined influences. Cultural Factors For Valley city, the cultural diversity is a notable factor that could impact the efficacy of disaster recovery efforts. Some community members may primarily speak languages other than English, which can pose challenges in disseminating critical information about safety measures, evacuation plans, and healthcare access. Additionally, certain cultural norms and beliefs might affect how different groups perceive and respond to the disaster. For example, some cultures may place a significant emphasis on community support and collaboration in times of crisis, while others might prioritize individual efforts and resilience. Addressing these cultural nuances requires clear multilingual communication, respect for cultural norms, and inclusion of diverse community voices in the disaster recovery planning process (Ekezie et al., 2022). Social Factors and Social Support Networks The Valley city is socially diverse, with varying degrees of vulnerability among its members. Older adults, individuals with disabilities, and non-English speaking individuals may face additional difficulties in accessing information and resources. They may also be more prone to isolation and have a higher risk of mental health problems due to the disaster. Strategies to address these social barriers might include targeted outreach programs, buddy systems to ensure that vulnerable individuals are not left alone, and mental health resources such as counseling and support groups (Boenigk et al., 2021). Economic Factors The socioeconomic status of Valley city members varies widely. Lower-income individuals or families may struggle to afford necessary resources for evacuation and recovery, such as transportation, temporary housing, or healthcare services. Efforts to address these economic disparities could include sliding-scale fees for services, targeted financial assistance or grant programs, and partnerships with non-profit organizations or government programs that can provide additional resources (Rouhanizadeh & Kermanshachi, 2019). Environmental Conditions The train derailment in Valley city has caused water supply contamination, which presents an immediate health risk. Other environmental hazards may include air pollution due to smoke or chemical releases, physical dangers from the wreckage, or long-term health risks from exposure to toxic substances. Responding to these conditions would require a coordinated effort from environmental and health agencies. Strategies might include providing alternative water sources, cleaning up the disaster area, monitoring air and water quality, and providing health screenings or treatments for individuals exposed to hazardous materials (Rouhanizadeh & Kermanshachi, 2019). Determinants of Health (Healthy People 2030) In addition to these immediate factors, the disaster recovery plan for Valley city must also consider longer-term health determinants as defined by Healthy People 2030. This might include efforts to improve access to healthcare services, reduce health disparities, and promote healthy behaviors and mental well-being. Strategies could range from mobile health clinics to community health education programs, to mental health resources and social support networks (Kleinman et al., 2021). The determinants of health and barriers in a community are not standalone entities. Understanding these interrelationships is fundamental to developing an effective disaster recovery plan as it allows us to see the community as an interconnected system rather than a collection of individual elements. In the context of Valley city, specific determinants of health identified from the Valley City facts may include factors such as socioeconomic status, access to healthcare facilities, environmental conditions, social support networks, and health behaviors. For example, the socioeconomic status of individuals can influence their access to resources and their ability to afford necessary healthcare services. Environmental conditions, such as contaminated water or air pollution, can directly impact the health of community members. The availability of social support networks plays a critical role in promoting resilience and aiding in the recovery process. Lastly, health behaviors, such as engaging in healthy practices and seeking timely medical care, can significantly impact overall health outcomes. These factors play a crucial role in shaping the overall health and well-being of the community. By addressing them in the disaster recovery plan, we can effectively mitigate the long-term impacts of the disaster and promote a healthier and more resilient Valley city. Let’s explore these factors: Cultural and Social Factors Interrelationship Cultural factors often interplay with social factors in shaping the response to a disaster. For instance, cultural norms and values can shape social networks and determine how community members collaborate and support each other during a disaster. For example, in a community where cultural norms value collective action and mutual aid, social networks may be stronger and more effective in providing support during recovery efforts (Rouhanizadeh & Kermanshachi, 2019). Social and Economic Factors Interrelationship Social factors are often closely intertwined with economic factors. For instance, individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds may be more socially isolated due to limited resources or stigmatization. This could hinder their access to information, resources, and social support networks during the disaster recovery period. Conversely, individuals with stronger social networks may have more access to resources and

Capella 4060 Assessment 2

Capella 4060 Assessment 2 Community Resources Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4060 Practicing in the Community to Improve Population Health Prof. Name Date Community Resources This report provides an in-depth analysis of the nonprofit organization, Cultural Survival. It investigates its mission, initiatives, and impacts on public health, safety, equal opportunity, and quality of life within indigenous communities. The assessment is grounded in evidence-based research and real-world examples. The Organization’s Contribution to Public Health and Safety Improvements Cultural Survival’s mission is to advocate for the rights of Indigenous Peoples globally. This goal is inherently tied to public health and safety improvements, as it promotes access to critical resources and safe living conditions for these communities. Their advocacy is exemplified in their support of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), which encapsulates the right to health and well-being among others. By lobbying for the implementation of UNDRIP, Cultural Survival advances health rights of Indigenous communities worldwide (Indigenous Rights and Cultures, n.d.). A tangible manifestation of this commitment is their campaign against harmful projects like the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL). The DAPL posed significant risks to the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe’s water supply, a critical resource for their physical health, and threatened their cultural heritage sites. Cultural Survival’s staunch opposition to such initiatives underscores their dedication to safeguarding both physical health (through clean water) and cultural safety (Bacon, 2019). Additionally, through the Cultural Survival Bazaars, the organization provides a safe and respectful platform for Indigenous artisans and musicians to showcase their culture. These events enhance the psychological safety of participants by creating a celebratory environment that fosters cultural exchange and appreciation. Thus, Cultural Survival’s mission and vision enable it to contribute significantly to public health and safety improvements. By standing up for Indigenous rights, the organization helps ensure access to clean water, secure living conditions, and the preservation of resources and lands crucial to the health and safety of Indigenous Peoples (Indigenous Rights and Cultures, n.d.). The Organization’s Ability to Promote Equal Opportunity and Improve Quality of Life All the initiatives Cultural Survival undertakes, aimed at breaking down social, cultural, economic, and physical barriers, illustrate the organization’s ability to promote equal opportunity and enhance the quality of life in Indigenous communities. By addressing these barriers, Cultural Survival helps build stronger, more resilient communities, thereby improving overall community health and well-being. Social barriers refer to societal constructs that limit opportunities and social mobility based on perceived class, ethnicity, gender, or culture. Cultural Survival actively addresses these barriers by advocating for Indigenous rights and freedom from discrimination. They foster a greater understanding of Indigenous cultures through their publications and outreach efforts, aiming to dispel stereotypes and promote social inclusion. Cultural barriers arise from differences in language, customs, and traditions that can lead to misunderstanding or exclusion. Cultural Survival combats these by promoting Indigenous languages, cultures, and knowledge systems. Their community radio program, for instance, empowers Indigenous communities to tell their stories and share their culture in their native languages, fostering cultural understanding and preservation (Gellman, 2022). Economic barriers include poverty, lack of employment opportunities, and limited access to economic resources. Cultural Survival contributes to overcoming these barriers through initiatives that support Indigenous economic development. Their Indigenous Arts and Bazaars program provides Indigenous artisans a platform to sell their works, promoting economic independence and cultural expression. Physical barriers encompass geographical remoteness, lack of infrastructure, and access to basic amenities like clean water and healthcare. Cultural Survival addresses these barriers through their advocacy work, pushing for the rights of Indigenous Peoples to their ancestral lands and resources. They also partner with Indigenous communities to develop sustainable, community-led projects that address these physical barriers (Gellman, 2022). By addressing all these barriers, the Cultural Survival ensures that equal opportunities are provided to the specific communities and their quality of lives is improved.  The Impact of Funding Sources, Policy, and Legislation on the Organization’s Provision of Services Cultural Survival’s activities are financed by different sources, including individual donors, foundations, and grants such as the Ford Foundation’s Social Justice Grant. For instance, these funds enable the Indigenous Community Media Youth Fellowship, a program nurturing young Indigenous broadcasters. Fluctuations in funding could lead to changes in the scale or even continuity of this program (Indigenous Rights and Cultures, n.d.). National and international policies significantly influence Cultural Survival’s work. An example is the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), a crucial policy that Cultural Survival leverages to advocate for Indigenous rights. However, national policies that disregard UNDRIP, such as certain land use policies, could limit the organization’s advocacy effectiveness. Legislation, like the U.S. Johnson Amendment, which protects non-profit organizations’ rights to free speech while prohibiting them from participating in political campaigns, influences the organization’s operations. If changes were made to this legislation, reducing these protections, Cultural Survival’s advocacy work could be impacted (Claeys & Edelman, 2019). The implications of these elements on the Indigenous communities are profound. Reduction in funding, unfavorable policies, or restrictive legislation could lead to diminished support from Cultural Survival, negatively affecting the community’s quality of life and rights. Conversely, increased support and favorable policy or legislative changes can significantly improve conditions and opportunities for these communities. The Organization’s Impact on the Health and/or Safety Needs of a Local Community Cultural Survival plays a pivotal role in promoting the health and safety of Indigenous communities. Their advocacy work and initiatives aim to secure access to health and safety resources for these communities. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Cultural Survival worked diligently to echo the voices of Indigenous communities, advocated for fair vaccine distribution, and backed community-driven efforts to combat the virus (Bacon, 2019). Nurses could play key roles in Cultural Survival’s operations. They could provide vital health education and services in collaboration with Indigenous initiatives. This might involve direct patient care, community health education, or even disease prevention and management workshops. Nurses, with their expertise and experience, could also be involved in advocacy work. They could help champion policies

Capella 4060 Assessment 1

Capella 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4060 Practicing in the Community to Improve Population Health Prof. Name Date Health Promotion Plan This assessment presents a comprehensive health promotion plan focusing on the mitigation of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in a specific low-income African-American community in New York City. The plan elaborates on the critical concerns, establishes SMART goals, and underscores the importance of community collaboration and cultural sensitivity in health promotion efforts. Analysis of Community Health Concern – Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has been selected as the health concern for the hypothetical health promotion plan. The term ‘SIDS’ or ‘crib death’ refers to the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of seemingly healthy babies less than a year old. Despite extensive research, the exact cause of SIDS remains elusive, leading to uncertainty and fear among parents and caregivers. SIDS is unpredictable and unpreventable, which further underscores the need for rigorous health promotion strategies to educate communities on risk reduction methods and safe sleep practices (Cox, 2022). The chosen population for this health promotion plan is African-American parents and caregivers of infants aged 0-12 months residing in an urban, low-income neighborhood of Brownsville in Brooklyn, New York City. This population group has been selected due to the higher incidence of SIDS observed among African-American infants compared to their white counterparts. The demographic characteristics of this population group include lower income and education levels, higher unemployment rates, and single-parent households. The targeted group predominantly consists of young mothers, in their late teens or early twenties, often living in multi-generational households. Capella 4060 Assessment 1 The health promotion plan involves conducting six one-hour educational sessions spread over six weeks. The sessions will include discussions and educational activities on SIDS, risk factors, safe sleep practices, and navigating economic and social barriers to safe sleep. Each session will have a specific focus. For instance, the first session may focus on understanding SIDS and its impact, the second on recognizing risk factors, the third on safe sleep practices, and so forth. Participants’ learning will be assessed through verbal recaps, quizzes, and group discussions at the end of each session. Additionally, participants’ adoption of safe sleep practices and their ability to identify and mitigate risk factors will be evaluated in follow-up sessions and surveys to gauge the effectiveness of the educational sessions and make any necessary adjustments Importance of Addressing SIDS for Health Promotion within a Specific Population Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is a pressing health concern, notably within African-American communities in an urban, low-income neighborhood of Brownsville in Brooklyn, New York City. The importance of addressing SIDS becomes evident when we examine the statistics. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as of 2018, the SIDS rate among African-American infants was more than twice that of their Caucasian counterparts, with a rate of 170.3 deaths per 100,000 live births compared to 66.7 deaths per 100,000 among Caucasians (CDC, 2020). This stark disparity highlights the urgent need to focus on SIDS as a significant health concern within this community. Social Factors: Given the close-knit nature of many African-American communities, social relationships can profoundly influence health behaviors. Key influencers within these relationships, such as family elders, peers, and community leaders, can sway acceptance and application of safe sleep practices. A health promotion plan focusing on SIDS would need to actively engage these influencers, ensuring they receive proper education about SIDS and the importance of safe sleep practices (Harrison, 2022). Economic Factors: Lower income levels and socioeconomic barriers prevalent in this population may compromise the provision of a safe sleep environment for infants, elevating the risk of SIDS. For instance, parents working irregular hours or multiple jobs might resort to co-sleeping out of convenience, or lack of other safe alternatives. This information necessitates the integration of economic considerations into the health promotion plan, offering solutions like low-cost or no-cost safe sleep aids, or resources for obtaining cribs at reduced costs (Goldwater & Oberg, 2021). Capella 4060 Assessment 1 Cultural Factors: Certain cultural beliefs and practices among African-Americans, such as bed-sharing or the use of soft bedding, might contribute to the elevated SIDS rates. These practices might be deeply ingrained and passed down through generations, making them harder to change. A well-crafted health promotion plan would respect and acknowledge these cultural practices while emphasizing the need for safe sleep practices. This might involve finding culturally sensitive ways to adapt these practices, or working towards creating a new cultural norm of safe sleep (Ahn et al., 2021). Establishment of Collaborative SMART Goals for SIDS Prevention The educational session will have certain goals developed in collaboration with the participants. The following SMART goals are established in collaboration with the participants: Goal 1 – Understanding SIDS: By the end of the first one-hour session (T), the participants will be able to correctly define Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and articulate two potential causes (S,R). The achievement of this goal is measurable through a short quiz at the end of the session (A,M) Goal 2 –  Identifying Risks: By the end of the first session (T), the participants will identify at least two unsafe sleep practices in their own households that potentially increase the risk of SIDS (S,R). The success of this goal is verifiable through individual sharing and discussion (A,M) Goal 3 – Implementing Safe Sleep Practices: Participants will list three recommended safe sleep practices to prevent SIDS by the close of the initial session (S,T). This goal is measurable through group discussion and a short quiz (A,M) Goal 4 – Resource Awareness: At the completion of the first session (T), participants will be able to name at least two community resources available to aid in providing a safe sleep environment for infants (S,R). The achievement of this goal is measurable through participant feedback (A,M).  Conclusion In conclusion, addressing SIDS in this vulnerable community requires a multilayered, culturally sensitive approach that accounts for social, economic, and

Capella 4050 Assessment 4

Capella 4050 Assessment 4 Final Care Coordination Plan Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4050 Coord Patient-Centered Care Prof. Name Date Final Care Coordination Plan In every healthcare organization, care coordination is pivotal for desired outcomes in patients’ well being. By utilizing care coordination, healthcare personnel can ensure the efficacious health changes in patients. The care coordination plan aids the care coordination procedure by making sure that all the patients, specifically the patients with lifestyle changes, get to acquire the best possible healthcare (Beth et al., 2019). Nurses must coordinately work with the community resources to obtain the best healthcare results, especially in care coordination. Besides, the healthcare coordination plan must be in accordance with the regulations of Federal rules and practical to ethical guidelines. The following final care coordination plan is developed  on the basis of  assessment 1 which was the preliminary care coordination plan. In this study, the final care plan discussed is primarily  for patients suffering through COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is heterogenous lung disease characterized by shortness of breath, cough and exacerbation due to abnormalities in airways such as bronchitis, emphysema. Use of care coordination plan will help maximize the health benefits to COPD patients (Raaijmakers et al., 2023). Patient-Centered Health Interventions and Timelines Patient-Centered care therapies bring astonishing effects to the betterment of a patient’s health as the therapy provided is centered to an individual patient based on the needs of the particular disease of the patient and according to the patient’s priorities. Due to the primary focus of therapy on a patient’s health and well-being, this approach is better than conventional hospital-centered approach which keeps the hospital’s advantage in mind rather than patient’s health (McFarland et al., 2019). Long term care plan for COPD should try to minimize the risk of exacerbations and delay their onset to decrease the burden on the health care system and enhance health related quality of life. The keys of primary care COPD management comprise smoking cessation, vaccination, physical activity, pulmonary rehabilitation in cases of dyspnea and functional disability, care of exacerbations that arise, and maintenance pharmacotherapy to alleviate exacerbations. Multiple barriers contribute to the inefficient treatment of patients suffering from COPD. Lack of organizational services during transitions of care is one of these barriers that hinders the proper treatment of COPD patients. Certain health interventions that can be done in this regard are spreading awareness and educating professionals about the disease itself, describing current services and guidelines, and evaluating the resources and practices with respect to the guidelines. Healthcare personnel can also improve the services by facilitating the vaccination process and ensuring access to smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation programs on an ongoing basis. Capella 4050 Assessment 4 Lack of screening services is another barrier to the proper treatment of COPD patients. This is improved by ensuring the availability and easy accessibility of this spirometer in primary care units and by providing other healthcare professionals with the necessary knowledge about this service. Another issue that healthcare professionals confront in the poor treatment of COPD is a lack of patient adherence. This can be overcome by providing patient education, developing a questionnaire to identify patients’ educational needs and personalizing the intervention, and involving patients, caregivers, and family members in COPD education interventions (Slevin et al., 2019). Different community sources practices can connect COPD patients with community stop-smoking groups, gyms, American Lung Association Chapters/BetterBreathers Clubs. A collaborative relationship between the physician, nurse, pharmacist, ER specialists, and physical therapist should be ensured to provide continuous coordinated therapy to the patient. Care transition is done like pulmonologist referral should be made and coordinated when needed. Referral to pulmonary rehabilitation and access to the exercise after formal rehabilitation can be made by practice (Vachon et al., 2022). Ethical Decisions in Designing Patient Centered Healthcare Interventions Patient-centered care has achieved  importance lately as it comprises making decisions with regard to patients’ likelihood  along with  incorporating them  in the entire therapeutic plan. Patients’ families equally contribute with nurses and other healthcare personnel to share knowledge about the patients’ conditions, their lifestyles and habits and to help in getting patients’ permission for a certain treatment as prescribed by healthcare professionals. Autonomy gives the patient the right to choose the care plan according to his will and preferences. Physicians and other healthcare professionals can only guide him about the adverse effects and benefits of a certain therapy plan but are unable to make decisions on patient’s behalf. This is where the healthcare professionals are deemed to put forth extraordinary effort so they can self-motivate patients to choose the best care plan without implementing their care plan. Healthcare professionals try to respect the patients’ choices,whether they are health-improving or not. One of the ethical dilemmas concerned by the physicians is helping patients deal with COPD as an addiction disease, patients’ rejection concerning the harm of smoking, motivation for patient’s self-management and the mystery of disease (Jannick Kuipers et al., 2019). Capella 4050 Assessment 4  There is a certain ethical dilemma created while managing COPD and deciding the coordinated care plan. For example, a patient’s nicotine addiction and the physicians’ ethical requirements bring the conflict in this scenario, where the physicians must select the treatment on the basis of scientific knowledge and the patients’ choices. Physicians must listen to the patient’s point of view regarding his own health and well-being so they can target the patient’s likelihood of therapy adherence (Fiorillo et al., 2020). Physicians are supposed to deliver the necessary information about the disease and prospects to patients with truthfulness to make the relationship honest and open-minded between patient and physician. By acquiring knowledge from the ethical dilemmas that healthcare professionals experience, the care plan should be made keeping these scenarios in mind. Patients show non-adherence in case of continuing smoking and nicotine addiction, they reject the harms of tobacco use and consider themselves to know everything about their disease. Therefore, the care plan should include every possible strategy and tactic for declining