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NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 5 Intervention Presentation and Capstone Video Reflection

Student Name Capella University NURS FPX 4900 Capstone Project for Nursing Prof. Name Date Intervention Presentation and Capstone Video Reflection Good afternoon everyone! My name is _____ and I thank all of you for joining me for this video presentation. Today, I’ll present the evidence-based intervention that I developed and implemented in my capstone project. This intervention plan was developed for patient Joey who suffered from coronary heart disease and faced problems in acquiring adequate care treatment. Let’s see how this intervention plan played an effective role in improving Joey’s condition. Contribution of an Intervention to Patient Satisfaction and Quality of Life Before the proposed intervention for CHD treatment and management, Joey had to make multiple revisits to hospitals due to complications of his condition. It was found he had problems related to healthcare provision at the hospitals and some financial challenges also prevented him from treating his condition effectively. The proposed plan was a telehealth-based self-management education program for CHD along with the remote monitoring of medication adherence to promote medication compliance. This intervention was developed considering all these factors which were problematic to Joey and acted as a barrier to manage his disease. This patient-centered intervention was effective and resulted in enhanced patient satisfaction and quality of life.  Joey described that remote monitoring of medication intake was a great help in taking medication consistently. It made him become more mindful of the next dose to be taken and this application of notifying the nurse on medication adherence increased his motivation to take medication. The nurse’s recommendation of using a smart pill box to divide medication into each box for a whole week was excellent to prevent from forgetting to take medication. NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 5 Intervention Presentation and Capstone Video Reflection Joey also mentioned that the self-management education program helped him observe a healthier lifestyle and maintain consistency as well. He was more aware of what foods he should eat and how physical activity can help him alleviate the progression of his condition. These interventions helped Joey control the risk factors of CHD and manage his condition effectively. This ultimately increases their quality of life, experience, and satisfaction.  Patient safety and quality of care are two key factors in providing healthcare services. When these factors are achieved, patient experience leads to patient satisfaction and improved quality of life. My proposed intervention fulfilled all these criteria as the intervention developed was patient-centered and involved nursing ethics. The needs of the patient were kept under consideration and clinical-decision making was done after noting the patient’s concern to his intervention. Hence, Joey’s experience was enhanced and his satisfaction and quality of life were improved through this proposed intervention. Evidence and Peer-Reviewed Literature to Plan and Implement a Capstone Project Evidence-based practices (EBP) are significant in designing and implementing an intervention for a capstone project. As these practices improve the clinical outcomes in the capstone project. Amalgaming evidence-based practices and credible data with the capstone project learnings, and interventions obtained can improve the clinical results of the patients (Kim et al., 2019). In my capstone project’s planning and implementation, evidence and peer-reviewed literature were utilized. These studies provided clear evidence of what strategy to include and how it can help my patient’s condition.  According to the American Heart Association, telehealth plays a great impact on the effective management of cardiovascular diseases including CHD (Takahashi et al., 2022). This supported the utilization of telehealth in bringing improvements for cardiovascular patients. Another study utilized the mobile-health for the self-management of cardiovascular patients by providing them with tools and guidelines to control their risk factors. This included lifestyle modifications, and the use of wearables to monitor their vital signs and heart rate. Nurses used smartphone apps or website-based patient portals to provide care treatment to patients in the comfort of their homes. This intervention in cardiovascular patients improved their overall quality of health and also well-managed their condition (Cruz-Ramos et al., 2022).  Another study on the utilization of mobile health technology for monitoring the medication adherence in patients to improve medication compliance using educational tools to promote medication adherence and deliverable reminders for their study population. This study resulted in improved outcomes in the overall health of the patients by promoting medication adherence through smartphone apps (Al-Arkee et al., 2021). Such evidence-based literature influenced me to create likewise intervention i.e. telehealth-based self-management education program and medication adherence application for Joey to improve his compliance to his medication regimen and bring quality improvements in his health condition. Leveraged Health Technology in Improving Outcomes and Communication in Capstone Project  For effective communication and gaining desired improved outcomes in a capstone project, it is essential to incorporate health technologies in all steps of providing care treatment. Healthcare technologies like information exchanging social media apps such as WhatsApp and telephonic calls and video calls can be a few examples to make articulate and effective communication among patients and health practitioners (Lee et al., 2020). In my capstone project, the role of health information technologies was the highest. From communicating with other health team members to providing proposed interventions, health information technologies were utilized throughout this capstone project. These technologies included telehealth for communication with patients to provide treatment and management of CHD. Other than that, smartphone applications were used to convey patient data on medication adherence, this also served to be a means of communication with my patient and his family. These communication tools of health information technologies were a great source of clinical improvement in patient outcomes. Further prospective opportunities for improving healthcare technologies can be made by publicizing the use of health information technologies. This can be done by increasing the public’s literacy levels about the impact of healthcare technologies on health problems. This will enhance the use of technologies like wearables, fitness trackers, wellness apps, reminders for physical activity, and other lifestyle changes in the everyday life of patients with chronic diseases (Tricás-Vidal et al., 2022). Influence of Health Policy on Planning and Implementation of

NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 4 Patient Family or Population Health Problem Solution

Student Name Capella University NURS FPX 4900 Capstone Project for Nursing Prof. Name Date Patient, Family, or Population Health Problem Solution Type 2 diabetes are widespread health issues with significant consequences for individuals and healthcare systems alike. In John’s case, these co-occurring conditions necessitate a holistic, evidence-based intervention tailored to effectively manage his health and minimize the risk of complications. This assessment will delve into the importance of understanding the patient’s needs, preferences, and financial situation. We will explore strategies for patient-centered care, communication and collaboration, adherence to nursing practice standards and policies, the application of technology, care coordination, and utilization of community resources. By considering John’s unique circumstances, including his financial constraints, our goal is to develop a comprehensive approach that incorporates self-management strategies, government policies, and telehealth services to optimize his diabetes management and overall health. Role of Leadership and Change Management in Addressing the Health Problem Leadership and change management are critical components in addressing Type 2 diabetes. Effective leadership strategies involve creating a shared vision, empowering team members, and building a culture of learning and innovation. By developing a clear vision for diabetes management that aligns with organizational goals and patient needs, leaders can ensure that all team members understand and work towards that vision (Khodyakov et al., 2021). Empowering healthcare professionals to make decisions, share ideas, and implement evidence-based practices is crucial for developing a culture of continuous improvement (Worum et al., 2020). Change management strategies are essential for adapting to new practices and overcoming barriers to change. Strategies include assessing readiness for change, engaging stakeholders, and piloting and evaluating changes (Kho et al., 2020). Involving patients, families, healthcare professionals, and other stakeholders in the change process is critical for building buy-in and ensuring their needs and concerns are addressed (Ritchey et al., 2020). Nursing ethics, such as patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice also influenced the development of the intervention (Cheraghi et al., 2023). The proposed intervention involves a multidisciplinary approach, which includes patient education, self-care, technology, care coordination, and the utilization of community resources. Providing culturally sensitive, tailored education on diabetes management, nutrition, and physical activity empowers patients to make informed decisions about their care (Singh et al., 2022). Encouraging patients to take an active role in their care, including self-monitoring of blood glucose, medication adherence, and lifestyle modifications is essential (Ritchey et al., 2020). Communication and Collaboration Strategies to Improve Outcomes The care team will work collaboratively with John and his family to implement the following strategies to improve his health outcomes: NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 4 Patient Family or Population Health Problem Solution Influence of State Board Nursing Practice Standards and Policies on the Proposed Intervention The devised intervention for John’s situation is built upon nursing practice standards set by the state board, organizational directives, and government regulations that prioritize evidence-based, patient-focused care. These guiding principles were instrumental in forming the intervention and ensuring its alignment with up-to-date best practices. The practice standards underscore the significance of nursing assessments, care planning, personalized patient education, and routine patient monitoring for those with diabetes. Adhering to these standards guarantees that nurses deliver uniform, top-notch care while following ethical nursing principles such as patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. The suggested intervention takes into account the ADA’s extensive guidelines concerning diabetes management. These guidelines address numerous care aspects, including blood glucose monitoring, pharmacological interventions, lifestyle changes, and care coordination (Buse et al., 2019). By following these recommendations, the care team can offer John the most suitable care, customized to his unique needs and preferences. A study discovered that diabetes self-management education (DSME) and support, in accordance with ADA guidelines, resulted in significant enhancements in glycemic control, self-care habits, and diabetes-related quality of life (Sukkarieh-Haraty et al., 2022). NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 4 Patient Family or Population Health Problem Solution The intervention also complies with organizational and governmental policies that advocate for patient safety, care quality, and cost-effective healthcare delivery. For example, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) have introduced initiatives to enhance diabetes care, such as the Diabetes Self-Management Training (DSMT) program, which bolsters patient education and self-management efforts (Puckrein et al., 2022). Research indicated that technology-supported diabetes self-management solutions, in line with nursing practice standards set by the state board and governmental policies, positively impacted patients’ clinical outcomes and satisfaction levels (Brew-Sam et al., 2020).  By ensuring that nursing care is evidence-based, patient-focused, and in line with the most recent best practices, the policies indicated in the supplied text can be successful in raising outcomes and standards. It is possible to guarantee that care is provided in a standardized and efficient manner by adhering to nursing practice standards established by the state board and by following directives from professional organizations like the ADA. Consistency can improve patient outcomes, including glucose control, self-care routines, and quality of life for people with diabetes. Additionally, adhering to corporate and governmental rules can advance patient safety, high-quality care, and efficient healthcare delivery. Healthcare professionals can improve patient education and self-management efforts by implementing programs like the Diabetes Self-Management Training (DSMT) program.  Effects of proposed intervention on Quality of Care, Patient Safety, and Reducing Costs The proposed intervention for John is designed to improve the quality of care, enhance patient safety, and reduce costs for both the healthcare system and the individual. By implementing evidence-based strategies, the intervention can potentially lead to better health outcomes, fewer complications, and decreased healthcare expenditures. The intervention’s focus on personalized patient education and self-care encourages John to actively participate in his diabetes management, leading to better adherence to treatment plans and improved health outcomes. Additionally, the multidisciplinary approach ensures that John receives comprehensive care tailored to his needs, ultimately improving the overall quality of care (O’Hara et al., 2020). The American Diabetes Association (ADA) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes support these conclusions, emphasizing the effectiveness of comprehensive diabetes management in enhancing patient outcomes and lowering healthcare costs (Doyle-Delgado et al., 2020).  NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 4 Patient Family

NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 3 Assessing the Problem Technology Care Coordination and Community Resources Considerations

Student Name Capella University NURS FPX 4900 Capstone Project for Nursing Prof. Name Date Assessing the Problem: Technology, Care Coordination, and Community Resources Considerations Introduction Type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the chronic health diseases that are common worldwide. There are various complications of this disease, which may lead to several challenges for the patients. One such patient has been observed in my healthcare facility, as discussed in Assessment 1. John, a 50-year-old, male patient, has been receiving DM treatment and care for a long period of time at our hospital. Recently, he has been suffering from extreme fatigue and blurry vision which are some of the complications of diabetes. Multiple lifestyle and medicinal changes have been implemented on John but his blood sugar levels remain high as he has acquired the disease hereditary from his parents. This assessment is another part of the previous one where I will be discussing some of the healthcare technologies that John has been using for the management of his disease and we will further dig into how coordination of care and community resources can be useful for improving John’s health.  Impact of Healthcare Technologies on Type II DM Recently, several technologies have become a part of the healthcare industry, and healthcare providers, as well as patients, are benefitted from their use. Technological advancements have proven to have multiple benefits improving patient safety by programming risks and it eases the process of diagnosis and consultation. Moreover, it facilitates information sharing, assists in deriving clinical decisions, reduces medical errors, improves healthcare practices, and most importantly manages human shortages (Astier et al., 2020).  Similarly, there are some of the technologies that have been innovated for the monitoring and management of diabetes. These are; glucose monitoring devices and insulin administration machines (pens and pumps). John used a blood glucose monitoring device previously when a new technology which is a Continous Glucose monitoring device has been introduced for better management of his condition. Although the plan of action for both CGM and blood glucose monitoring is the same, CGM has various other benefits as it provides both immediate as well as predictive glycemic data. This information will enable healthcare providers and John to monitor his glucose trends, identify hypo/hyperglycemia events with no symptoms, and review inconsistency over a period (Miller, 2020). Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have approved eight CGM systems worldwide and many of them are planned for future approval in years ahead (Aleppo & Webb, 2018).  Despite having several benefits, CGM has certain disadvantages too. One of the basic drawbacks is the alarm system in the device.  John has been recently introduced to this so he hasn’t shown any complaints however research finds various negative reports of CGM. Some patients have reported that these alarms can be disturbing while they are at work or school. Additionally, these alarms have resulted in increased anxiety and stress for various users. NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 3 Assessing the Problem An example of such a case is excessive night-time alarms which might cause anxiety-induced seizures and sleep deprivation in individuals (Alcántara-Aragón, 2019). This issue can be resolved by programming individualized alarms. Another disadvantage of CGM is it can sense the glucose present in interstitial fluid. There is always a difference between the glucose in the blood and interstitial spaces. Thus, the machines should be manually calibrated as BGM and patients must be educated about expected differences and should be instructed about performing BGM as needed (Alcántara-Aragón, 2019).  Continuous Glucose Monitoring Devices (CGM) in professional practices impose positive impacts on diabetic patients’ health but also have some potential barriers to implementation.  Cost and coverage by healthcare systems are two basic challenges faced by hospitals in terms of CGM implementation. With the advancements in technologies, cost-effectiveness has been an important aspect that most hospitals consider before introducing any digital devices in practice. Similarly, a study on the cost-effectiveness of CGM applications recommended that cost-benefit analysis is an important tool for decision-makers to have healthy gains and minimize the negative impact on the healthcare budget (Jiao et al., 2022). Another challenge is professional and personal education about CGM. Appropriate training of providers and patients is essential to the successful use of CGM in clinical practice. This training requires extensive development of curriculum and evidence-based practices which is a challenge for hospitals under this global burden of diseases (Aleppo & Webb, 2018).  NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 3 Assessing the Problem Lastly, accessibility and health disparities are further challenges of using advanced technologies. To combat this challenge, telehealth and the use of mobile apps can be a beneficial option in managing diabetes for chronic patients. Advances in digital technologies, especially the evolution of smartphone apps have largely impacted patients’ self-management skills related to diabetes, assist in improvising lifestyle and bringing modifications, enhance patient-provider connection through telemedicine, and motivates patients to be compliant with their medication regimen. In terms of managing type II diabetes, as our concerned patient, John, it will enable him to effectively manage his type II DM by recording his glucose trends, medicine intake, carbohydrate intake, physical activity, and hypoglycemia events. Moreover, through smartphone apps he can be given direct coaching and nursing care through telecommunication. Research shows that these technologies have proven to improve patients’ health and reduce the risk of complications (Doupis et al., 2020).  Use of Care Coordination and Community Resources The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) explains care coordination as the methodical planning of patients’ care activities and sharing of protected information only among required healthcare providers. This process results in effective, safe, and useful care according to patients’ needs and preferences (AHRQ, 2018). Management of diabetes can be costly, time-consuming, and is a complex process. Appropriate coordination of care by healthcare providers impacts positively these aspects of diabetes management thus improving patients’ outcomes. Since John is a chronic type II diabetes patient, he has been receiving various home health care services like home nursing, physical rehabilitation, and nutrition and dietary management. These services

NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 2 Assessing the Problem Quality Safety and Cost Considerations

Student Name Capella University NURS FPX 4900 Capstone Project for Nursing Prof. Name Date Assessing the Problem; Patient, Family, or Population Health Problem Solution The purpose of this assessment is to explore the impact of poorly managed Type 2 diabetes and obesity regarding the standard of care, patient well-being, and financial burden on the healthcare system and individuals. The analysis is based on two practicum hours spent with John, the patient, and consultations with subject matter experts, including diabetes nurse specialists, nutritionists, and other healthcare professionals. In addition, the assessment investigates the influence of nursing practice standards, organizational policies, and governmental regulations on the issue and recommends evidence-based strategies to tackle these concerns. The report also emphasizes the essential role of collaboration, communication, and leadership in the management of Type 2 diabetes and obesity, stressing the significance of a multidisciplinary approach to enhance patient outcomes. Finally, the conclusion highlights the importance of implementing evidence-based strategies to improve patient care, safety, and outcomes while minimizing healthcare costs. Practicum Hours Experience During the practicum hours, I interacted with John, his family, a diabetes nurse specialist, and a nutritionist. These meetings provided insights into the challenges John and his family face in managing his diabetes, the importance of patient education and self-care, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach to improve his condition. A review of evidence-based practice documents and websites further informed the best practices for diabetes management and the significance of patient-centered care. Impact on Quality of Care, Patient Safety, and Costs The management of Type 2 diabetes and obesity plays a crucial role in the quality of care and patient safety. When diabetes is poorly managed, patients are at an increased risk of developing complications such as kidney disease, nerve damage, and cardiovascular problems (Li et al., 2020). Obesity aggravates these issues, further elevating the risk of comorbidities (Zhou et al., 2020). In John’s case, inadequate management of his diabetes and obesity not only impacts his overall quality of care but also poses a threat to his safety. For instance, uncontrolled blood sugar levels can lead to hypoglycemia, which might cause sudden loss of consciousness, posing a significant risk to patient safety. The economic burden of Type 2 diabetes and obesity on both the healthcare system and individuals is substantial. It has been estimated that the direct medical costs of diabetes are around $327 billion annually in the United States (Li et al., 2020). These costs include expenses for medications, medical services, and productivity losses caused by diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. Moreover, obesity-related medical costs are estimated to be around $147 billion per year (Burd et al., 2020). In John’s case, the financial burden of managing his diabetes and obesity might lead to difficulties in affording medications and adhering to a healthy diet. This lack of resources can result in poorer health outcomes and increased healthcare utilization, placing an additional strain on the healthcare system. It is essential to address these challenges through effective management strategies, patient education, and multidisciplinary care to improve health outcomes and minimize healthcare costs. Impact of State Board Nursing Practice Standards and Policies on Type 2 Diabetes Management State Board Nursing Practice Standards State board nursing practice standards are critical in the management of Type 2 diabetes and obesity, as they guide nurses to provide evidence-based care to patients. These standards ensure that nurses assess, plan, and deliver diabetes management effectively, promoting patient safety and optimal health outcomes (Seaton et al., 2020). For example, the standards emphasize the importance of nursing assessment, care planning, individualized patient education, and regular monitoring of patients with diabetes. By adhering to these practice standards, nurses can effectively manage diabetes, reducing the risk of complications and associated healthcare costs. In addition, a coherent synthesis of literature supports these standards. A study found that a multidisciplinary approach to diabetes management led to improved outcomes for patients (Zhou et al., 2020). The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has also developed the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, which provide comprehensive guidelines on diabetes management, including diagnosis, treatment, and prevention (Li et al., 2020). These guidelines serve as a basis for healthcare organizations to develop their policies and protocols, ensuring the delivery of high-quality, evidence-based care to patients with diabetes. Organizational and Governmental Policies Policies at both the organizational and governmental levels play a critical role in managing Type 2 diabetes and obesity. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the 21st Century Cures Act are two examples of governmental policies that have implications for diabetes management. The ACA provides funding for programs aimed at preventing and managing chronic conditions such as diabetes, while the 21st Century Cures Act includes provisions related to the use of digital health technologies in healthcare (Zhou et al., 2020). One organizational policy that impacts diabetes management is the use of electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs allow for more efficient and coordinated care, as healthcare professionals can easily access and share patient information. Additionally, EHRs can facilitate population health management, allowing organizations to identify patients at risk for diabetes and implement interventions to prevent or manage the condition (Hohman et al., 2023). NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 2 Assessing the Problem Quality Safety and Cost Considerations Moreover, the “American Diabetes Association (ADA)” has established the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, a comprehensive set of guidelines that cover various aspects of diabetes management, such as diagnosis, treatment, and prevention (Li et al., 2020). These guidelines serve as a foundation for healthcare organizations to develop policies and protocols to provide high-quality, evidence-based care to diabetes patients. By incorporating up-to-date evidence-based guidelines from the ADA and other sources, healthcare organizations can ensure that they are providing the most effective interventions for managing diabetes and obesity. Policy Effects on Nursing Scope of Practice and Intervention The policies and standards associated with Type 2 diabetes management play a crucial role in determining the scope of nursing practice, influencing how nurses assess, plan, and provide care to patients with diabetes. For example, the nursing practice

NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem Leadership Collaboration Communication Change Management and Policy Considerations

Student Name Capella University NURS FPX 4900 Capstone Project for Nursing Prof. Name Date Assessing the Problem: Leadership, Collaboration, Communication, Change Management, and Policy Considerations This evaluation centers on the situation of John, a 50-year-old male patient contending with Type 2 diabetes management challenges. This evaluation aims to scrutinize information from expert sources and scholarly articles to direct nursing interventions and recommend efficient leadership approaches for bettering patient results, personalized care, and patient experiences. Moreover, this evaluation investigates the influence of nursing practice norms and regulations on John’s diabetes control, underlining the essential contribution of nurses in policy formulation to avert sickness, enhance outcomes, and minimize hospital readmissions. Finally, this evaluation records the hands-on experience gained with John and similar cases, guaranteeing a comprehensive grasp of the issue and the requisite leadership, cooperation, and change administration tactics needed to elevate patient outcomes. Problem Definition and Relevance This evaluation examines a patient care issue within our healthcare institution, highlighting the significance of leadership, cooperation, and change administration in tackling these challenges. Our patient, John, is a 50-year-old Hispanic male who has been experiencing inadequately managed Type 2 diabetes and obesity. His family background includes diabetes, as both his father and uncle were diagnosed with the disease. Despite attempting numerous medications and lifestyle modifications, John’s blood sugar levels persistently remain elevated, with HbA1c levels surpassing 9%. John has visited our healthcare facility multiple times over the past year, seeking help with managing his diabetes. His most recent visit was two weeks ago, when he reported increased fatigue and blurry vision, both of which are common symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes. As a baccalaureate-prepared nurse, I am responsible for ensuring that patients like John receive appropriate and timely care to prevent further complications and improve their quality of life. NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem The problem of uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes is significant not only for the patient’s health and well-being but also for the healthcare organization’s performance and reputation. Poorly managed diabetes can lead to severe complications, such as kidney damage, nerve damage, and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, resulting in frequent hospital visits and higher healthcare costs (Saeed et al., 2021). Furthermore, it can negatively impact patient satisfaction, as they may feel frustrated with their inability to manage their condition effectively. The issue of uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes is a significant public health problem, with statistics indicating its increasing prevalence in society. As a baccalaureate-prepared nurse, addressing this issue is highly relevant to my practice. My role involves providing comprehensive patient care, promoting health equity, and working towards improving population health outcomes. By focusing on patients like John, who struggle with poorly controlled diabetes, I can contribute to reducing health disparities, enhancing access to care, and empowering individuals to take charge of their health. My dedication to delivering top-notch, individualized care aligns with generating a favorable influence on the health and welfare of the communities. Evidence Analysis Numerous research studies from scholarly literature provide evidence that endorses nursing interventions connected to managing Type 2 diabetes in patients similar to John. For example, a systematic analysis underscores the efficacy of diabetes self-management education and assistance in enhancing blood sugar control and mitigating complications in Type 2 diabetes patients (Powers et al., 2020). Furthermore, a study accentuates the significance of a multidisciplinary team approach involving nurses in attaining improved diabetes outcomes (Catapan et al., 2021). The conclusions of these investigations align with nursing practices that emphasize patient education, self-management, and cooperation among healthcare experts. As nurses, we will provide comprehensive diabetes self-management education to John and other similar patients to improve their glycemic control and reduce the risk of complications. Additionally, we will collaborate with other healthcare professionals to develop and implement a multidisciplinary care plan that addresses John’s diabetes and related comorbidities. The conclusions of these investigations align with nursing practices that emphasize patient education, self-management, and cooperation among healthcare experts. NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem It is crucial to consider elements like the research design, the number of participants, and possible biases to assess the dependability of the information conveyed in these investigations. Additionally, examining the consistency of the findings across multiple studies and the overall quality of the research can help assess the evidence’s reliability. In the case of the systematic review, the authors synthesized findings from numerous high-quality studies, lending credibility to their conclusions. Furthermore, the large sample size and rigorous data analysis methods suggest the data are reliable (Johnson et al., 2020). Research has shown that adherence to nursing standards and policies can improve patient outcomes for Type 2 diabetes. A study by Sly et al. (2021) found that following evidence-based guidelines for diabetes care led to improved glycemic control and reduced hospital readmissions. Similarly, implementing clinical practice guidelines in diabetes care is associated with improved patient outcomes, including better glycemic control and lower rates of complications (American Diabetes Association, 2020). Nurses hold a vital position in formulating policies to enhance results, avert sickness, and decrease hospital re-admissions for individuals with Type 2 diabetes. According to a study, nursing involvement in policy development and advocacy can lead to more effective healthcare policies and better patient outcomes (Turale & Kunaviktikul, 2019). Additionally, a review by Kraaij et al., (2019) highlighted the importance of nursing leadership in shaping healthcare policies and improving diabetes care at the population level. NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1 Assessing the Problem The literature suggests that the Chronic Care Model (CCM) can serve as a guiding framework for nursing actions during the practicum. The CCM focuses on improving the quality of chronic illness care by integrating proactive healthcare teams, self-management support, and care coordination (Keddy et al., 2020). This model can help guide nursing interventions for patients like John, enabling them to manage their Type 2 diabetes better and improve their overall health. Additionally, the Self-Determination Theory offers valuable insights into how nurses can support patients’ motivation and autonomy in managing their diabetes, further enhancing the effectiveness of the nursing