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NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 4 Analyzing a Current Health Care Problem or Issue

Name Capella university NHS FPX4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective Prof. Name Date Analyzing a Current Health Care Problem or Issue   Medication errors can be described as a failure in the medication management process. It can be due to improper prescription, administration, or inaccurate medication records that can potentially damage the patient, resulting in poor health outcomes (Mosisa et al., 2022). This academic paper addresses a significant healthcare concern: medication errors within the healthcare system. The growing incidences of medication errors have developed my interest in this topic. As a healthcare provider, I must prioritize initiatives to prevent these errors in my nursing practice. In the professional context, I have observed various medication errors in my organization where healthcare providers administered incorrect medication doses, misread prescriptions, and neglected possible drug interactions, leading to severe patient complications. Thus, it is essential to tackle the underlying causes and put strong protections in place to reduce medication errors and ensure patient safety. Medication Errors as a Healthcare Issue Globally, medication errors cause morbidity, mortality, and adverse economic effects. The prevalence of medication errors may be correlated with the involvement of healthcare professionals such as medical experts, unit assistants, physicians, pharmacists, and nurses. In USA Intensive Care Units (ICUs), it has been observed that 42% of medication errors are crucial to continuing treatment, while 19% are life-threatening (Alrabadi et al., 2021). One-quarter of all healthcare errors are related to medication errors, including prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, administering, and monitoring. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that drug errors cost the global economy $42 billion yearly, or 0.7% of all health spending (Manias et al., 2020). According to the study by Alqenae et al. (2020), Medication errors (MEs) and adverse drug events (ADEs) are common and create severe risks to patients’ safety after discharge from the hospital. According to the review, over half of adult and senior patients have at least one medication error after discharge, with one in every five having one or more ADEs. Antibiotics, antidiabetics, analgesics, and cardiovascular medicines are the most typically related medication classes with ADEs. This highlights the significance of addressing medication safety during care transitions, and further research is required to find effective strategies to lessen these risks. These articles are valuable because they analyze the global significance of medication errors, their impact on patient safety, and the economic consequences. They provide specific statistics and insights into the prevalence and severity of medication errors. They highlight the need for interventions and research to mitigate these risks and improve healthcare outcomes. Analyze the Problem or Issue in Medication Error Medication errors are preventable mistakes that can result in incorrect medication use or harm to the patient. It can occur at any stage of the healthcare process, from prescribing to administration, and involves professionals, patients, and consumers. Medication errors in the healthcare system involve several groups. Prescription, preparation, and administration of pharmaceuticals are the responsibility of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals. Patients also have an essential role in misinterpreting drug instructions, insufficient medical history disclosure, or difficulty adhering to complex prescription schedules. Various contributory human factors cause medication errors (MEs) in hospital pharmacies. These factors include individual elements like fatigue and emotional stress, organizational aspects such as support systems and communication, task-related challenges like high workload during specific shifts, and team dynamics, including interprofessional communication. It is crucial to deal with these human factors for enhancing patient safety within the framework of hospital pharmacy settings. (Faraj et al., 2020). Another study by Kuitunen et al. (2020) describes avoiding safety procedures for high-alert drugs, drug knowledge gaps, calculation errors, double-checking lapses, and LASA medication confusion as systemic causes of medication errors. Addressing these flaws and standardizing processes are critical for improving medicine safety during administration, prescribing, and preparation. Discusses Potential Solutions for Medication Errors Medication errors require a wide range of approaches addressing their underlying causes. Potential solutions to ensure positive outcomes include integrated computerized pharmacy systems. Additionally, staff management and a process improvement approach are crucial. These solutions collectively aim to improve patient safety and reduce the risks associated with medication errors. Integrated Computerized Systems at Pharmacies Look-alike or sound-alike (LASA) errors constitute a significant part of total medication errors. These types of errors can create severe harm to patient health and safety. The approaches and solutions to reduce LASA include. To reduce medication-related errors, minimize interruptions, use ‘Tall Man lettering,’ and leverage barcode technology. One potential solution is using the technology of barcode medication delivery to ensure that the given medicine is correct. Healthcare providers should be informed about LASA medication combinations and computerized physician order entry systems with notifications should also be used to minimize errors (Baryan et al., 2020). The pros and cons of this solution are that proactive measures such as technology integration and healthcare provider education enhance patient safety while neglecting LASA errors, which can lead to patient harm, legal issues, and increased healthcare costs.  Management of Staff Potential solutions for reducing hospital medication errors include training junior staff in medication prescribing and administration. Training should focus on being vigilant during duty hours to mitigate these errors. In these trainings, hospital management should also address environmental issues and workload management for new and old nurses. Furthermore, interdisciplinary collaboration and curriculum evaluations on pharmaceutical safety can help avoid these errors (Isaacs et al., 2020). The pros and cons are that training junior staff can improve medication safety through increased vigilance, addressing environmental challenges, and fostering interdisciplinary collaboration. Ignoring this solution can create stress and anxiety within nursing professionals, which can enhance the chance of mistakes being made by nurses. Process Improvement Approach The implementation of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) in a =Thai hospital’s inpatient pharmacy was investigated by Trakulsunti et al. (2022) for the dispensing process. Some of the LSS tools used were cause-and-effect diagrams and brainstorming control charts. The study yielded significant improvements in the medication process. It streamlined the medication process, reduced dispensing errors, and improved overall patient safety. Middle management’s active involvement, leadership, and problem-solving skills can

NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Applying Ethical Principles

Name Capella university NHS FPX4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective Prof. Name Date Applying Ethical Principles Healthcare organizations worldwide deal with various ethical issues. These difficulties range from resource allocation quandaries to ensuring fair access to care, all of which necessitate the use of ethical principles. Ethical dilemmas are one of the issues of ethical principles, in which individuals face conflicting moral principles, making decisions difficult with no clear right or wrong choice. One of the similar case studies is discussed in this assessment.  The Ethical Case Study – To Vaccinate, or Not? In this case study, Anna, a newborn at Community Hospital, became the center of an ethical dilemma. Her parents, Jenna and Chris Smith, have decided not to vaccinate their daughter. They quoted the concerns they learned from internet mother blogs about vaccine hazards, including a potential link to autism. Dr. Angela Kerr, Anna’s pediatrician, promotes vaccination, highlighting its proven benefits in preventing disease and protecting public health. Dr. Kerr responds to the Smiths’ worries with scientific facts, highlighting vaccine success in lowering child mortality and disproving the autism-vaccine link. She also mentions vaccine safety monitoring methods such as the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to comfort the Smiths. Dr. Kerr also discusses herd immunity, highlighting its role in protecting susceptible individuals. Despite her efforts, the Smiths maintained their decision not to vaccinate Anna, presenting a complex ethical dilemma balancing parental autonomy, patient benefits, and public health concerns. It is assumed in this scenario that both sides prioritize their interests while relying on different sources of information and ethical principles, resulting in an ongoing ethical conflict requiring immediate and ethically sound solutions (Capella University, 2023). Assessment of Facts from the Case Study The case study’s outcome, revolves around Dr. Kerr’s ethical predicament. She faces a challenging decision, balancing medical expertise with the parents’ preferences. The contentious issue of childhood immunizations, frequently encountered in healthcare settings, arises when parents are hesitant to vaccinate their children, and this stance contradicts established medical research. Vital facts analyzed within the case study include parental vaccine refusal, the availability of misinformation from unreliable online sources, and compelling medical research advocating for vaccination benefits. Parental Refusal Due to Harmful Effect of Vaccination The case study showed that the Smiths strongly reject vaccination due to safety concerns that vaccine risks overcome the benefits. They cite increasing autism rates as proof. A study by Khattak et al. (2021) reports vaccine hesitancy as a global issue in more than 90% of countries. In Romania, 11.7% of parents refuse vaccination for their children, while in countries like the UK and USA, the rate has reached 30%. Further in the study, it is mentioned that the World Health Organization (WHO) has designated vaccination refusal as one of the top ten global hazards to public health in 2019 (Khattak et al., 2021). Another study by Nurmi et al. (2021) showed that childhood vaccine refusal is driven by concerns over vaccine risks, distrust in healthcare authorities, and reliance on alternative health practices.  Misinformation About Vaccines The case study revealed that Smith’s decision is heavily influenced by unverified blogs that spread vaccination disinformation. A study by Larson et al. (2020) highlights the role of social media in polarizing opinions, particularly in individuals’ health-related decisions. This research provides empirical evidence demonstrating misinformation’s substantial influence on Personal health choices. Moreover, it sheds light on the complex ethical challenges healthcare providers face as they strive to advocate for evidence-based practices amid these information dynamics. Positive Impacts of Vaccines In the case study, it is presented that Dr. Kerr discussed the advantages of vaccinations, with a specific focus on Measles and Haemophilus Influenzae illnesses. The research unveiled significant discrepancies in vaccination rates, with measles demonstrating relatively high acceptance compared to other vaccines, such as anti-pneumococcal. The study highlights the impact of compulsory vaccination laws on improving coverage and delves into the ethical considerations associated with such mandates. Overall, the results emphasize the importance of vaccination strategies and health advocacy, with measles vaccination being a noteworthy success (Bertoncello et al., 2021). These resources embrace significance for multiple reasons: a) they provide in-depth perspectives on vaccine hesitancy, b) they present meticulously researched evidence countering unreliable online sources, and c) they strongly emphasize the pivotal role of vaccines in disease prevention, offering a unique standpoint. Communication Approaches and Their Effectiveness In this case study,  Dr. Kerr’s communication skills align to help Ana’s parents understand their concerns. She follows the prompting communication approach, allowing the parents to express their concerns and listen to their reasons for refusing vaccination. This strategy was effective as it enabled Dr. Kerr to gain parental trust. Dr. Kerr recognized that vaccinating Ana was the right medical decision but respected the need for parental consent, avoiding potential ethical dilemmas. Through an informed communication approach, she focused on informed decision-making that highlighted the benefits of vaccination, aiming to change the parents’ perspective and ultimately protect Ana’s health. A study by Miller et al. (2020) highlighted effective healthcare communication as an effective strategy that should be incorporated into medical practices to build a therapeutic relationship and good rapport with clients. Moreover, Pokhilenko et al. (2021) present that the communication approach of informed decision-making is practical as it provides individuals with complete rights over their health choices, fulfilling medical duties, and conveying essential information. The ineffective approaches of ignorance, imposing treatments without respecting autonomy, and non-verbal communication approaches that give negative impressions to the patients should be avoided.  Ethical Decision-Making Model                                             The resource from Capella University (2023) outlines an ethical decision-making model with three main components: moral awareness, judgment, and behavior. This approach is the foundation for ethical committees to formulate and advocate moral decisions. Dr. Kerr expertly negotiated the ethical decision-making model for the Smiths’ vaccine hesitation. She demonstrated acute moral awareness by understanding the conflict between parental autonomy and public health concerns around Ana’s immunization. After the issue is identified, with the moral judgment component, Dr. Kerr provides research-based information to parents, allowing them to make informed decisions in line

NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills

Name Capella university NHS FPX4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective Prof. Name Date Applying Research skills  Medication errors can be described as a failure in the medication management process. It can be due to improper prescription, administration, or inaccurate medication records that can potentially damage the patient, resulting in poor health outcomes (Mosisa et al., 2022). The growing incidences of medication errors have developed my interest into this topic. As a healthcare provider, I must prioritize initiatives to prevent these errors in my nursing practice. In the professional context, I have observed various medication errors in my organization where healthcare providers administered incorrect medication, misread prescriptions, and neglected possible drug interactions, leading to severe patient complications. Thus, it is essential to tackle the underlying causes and put strong protections in place to reduce medication errors and ensure patient safety. Peer-reviewed Journal Articles Relevant to Medication Errors Many peer-reviewed journal articles are available on different databases that address medication errors and the potential strategies to minimize them. The selected articles for annotated bibliography are gathered from various databases, including the Capella University Library and outside resources like BioMed Central, Science Direct, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and PubMed. To increase the search efficiency of desired articles, I used appropriate keywords like “medication errors”, “medication safety”, and “medication administration”. The selected papers for annotated bibliography are recently published and relevant to the topic of interest as they present the information and knowledge with the most recent developments for reducing medication errors in healthcare settings.  Assessing the Credibility and Resources of Relevance  Evaluating the credibility and relevance of resources is a crucial step in any research process. The CRAAP criteria are applied to evaluate the value and dependability of the sources, which stands for currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, and purpose (Lowe et al., 2021). The credibility of resources can be ensured by; the articles being published within five years, the source responding explicitly to our research topic of medication errors, the authors and journal is credentialed, previous articles supporting their findings, and the purpose supports the objectives of the related topic of medication error. The reason for selecting reliable, evidence-based sources in the annotated bibliography on medication error is that these sources collectively offer comprehensive insights into the widespread issue of medication errors in pediatric settings. They also address the prevalence of errors in outpatient and home settings with emphasis on the importance of dosage accuracy, communication, and caregiver education. Lastly, these resources also highlight the role of advanced technologies like CDSS and eMAR systems in enhancing medication safety. Annotated Bibliography Stipp, M. M., Deng, H., Kong, K., Moore, S., Hickman, R. L., & Nanji, K. C. (2022). Medication safety in the perioperative setting: A comparison of methods for detecting medication errors and adverse medication events. Medicine, 101(44), e31432.   This research study investigates medication errors (MEs) with a focus on the differences between direct observation and self-reporting approaches for identifying these incidents. It was revealed in this study that there are several types of MEs, including labeling errors, incorrect doses, and omission errors. The study underlines the need for various strategies to identify and manage drug errors in perioperative care and advises enhancing event reporting templates. It was concluded that pharmacy-prepared meds and barcode-assisted administration could handle the difficulties of managing drugs in a fast-paced surgical environment to improve patient safety. The rationale to add this article is it is crucial to acknowledge the gaps in capturing perioperative medication incidents through direct observation versus self-reporting. Understanding these differences is vital for refining reporting strategies and improving medication safety in perioperative settings.  Shahzeydi, A., Farzi, S., Tarrahi, M. J., & Babaei, S. (2023). Exploring internship nursing students’ experiences regarding the effect of supervision model implementation on medication safety: A descriptive qualitative study. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 12(1), 266.  NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills This paper disclosed the impact of implementing a clinical supervision model on medication safety among nursing students. Medication errors are a significant concern in healthcare, and the article aims to help students decrease this area. The study included 15 nursing students and used qualitative approaches to acquire information about their experiences. Major outcomes of the clinical supervision approach include improved drug safety competence, increased trust, and reduced student stress. The research emphasizes the significance of competent clinical supervision in improving medication safety and students’ clinical abilities. This research article is added because it is essential to emphasize the effectiveness of the clinical supervision model in enhancing medication safety skills among nursing internship students. The results of this study highlight the model’s impact on medication administration principles, error reduction, accurate calculations, and overall improvement in clinical performance through constructive feedback. Liang, M. Q., Thibault, M., Jouvet, P., Lebel, D., Schuster, T., Moreault, M.-P., & Motulsky, A. (2023). Improving medication safety in a pediatric hospital: A mixed-methods evaluation of a newly implemented computerized provider order entry system. BMJ Health & Care Informatics, 30(1), e100622.   This article advocates the adoption of a Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) system in a hospital context, including its adoption for pediatric prescribing that will result in major changes in resolving medication errors. Most errors occurred during the nurse-administering step, emphasizing the need for better safety precautions, particularly in pediatric settings. Nurses and pharmacy technicians benefited from this activity, which improved efficiency and reduced medication errors. NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills In hospital settings, using a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) enhances the management of allergies and drug interactions, decreasing medication errors. The study was included here because it emphasizes the significance of enhancing electronic medication administration (eMAR) in mitigating medication errors. Adopting this aligns with the need for improved healthcare technology for patient safety. It was recommended in this study to develop proactive event reporting systems, and system-based suggestions highlight the importance of a comprehensive approach to error prevention and reporting. Chew, C.-C., HSS, A.-S., Chan, H.-K., & Hassali, M. A. (2019). Medication safety at home: A qualitative study on caregivers of chronically ill children in Malaysia. Hospital Pharmacy, 55(6), 001857871985171.  

NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 1 Pledge of Academic Honesty

Name Capella university NHS FPX 4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective Prof. Name Date Pledge of Academic Honesty I solemnly declare that all scholarly pursuits undertaken throughout the duration of this course, as well as any forthcoming educational endeavors, will stem from my own individual exertion and original cognition. I commit to being the solitary creator of all tasks, ensuring they mirror my unique concepts and efforts. Additionally, I grasp that unless expressly acknowledged, paraphrased, or cited, all written content will be entirely authentic and not drawn from external origins. Acknowledgment of Peer Contributions I admit that appropriating any segment of a peer’s dialogue without proper citation violates academic integrity. Furthermore, I comprehend that modifying a peer’s work without due recognition constitutes an act of academic dishonesty. Responsibility to Uphold Academic Integrity I pledge to promptly inform my instructor should I encounter any instance where another student has misrepresented my work or the work of others. I acknowledge the collective duty we carry in maintaining the principles of academic honesty at Capella University. Guidelines for Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing When integrating direct quotations from a source, I will enclose the text in quotation marks, provide contextualization for the quote, and adhere to APA formatting standards for both in-text citations and complete references. In cases of paraphrasing or summarizing, I will rephrase the content using original language and sentence structures while ensuring appropriate citation within the text and at the end of my work. Exploration of Resources on Academic Integrity I am dedicated to thoroughly examining the suggested materials on academic integrity, which encompass: Consequences of Academic Misconduct I am cognizant that any violation of the aforementioned standards constitutes plagiarism, a serious breach of academic integrity according to Capella University’s guidelines. In the event of identifying any instance of academic dishonesty, instructors will: Confirmation and Consent By signing below, I affirm my understanding of and commitment to adhering to the aforementioned policies. I acknowledge that these policies align with Capella University’s academic regulations. Should any questions or concerns regarding this pledge arise, I will seek clarification from my instructor before signing. NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 1 Pledge of Academic Honesty